SERVICES SUCH AS COMPANY STORES CANTEEN TRANSPORTATION ACCOMMODATION ETC PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY TO ITS EMPLOYEES

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "SERVICES SUCH AS COMPANY STORES CANTEEN TRANSPORTATION ACCOMMODATION ETC PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY TO ITS EMPLOYEES":

Quản trị bán lẻ chapter 1

QUẢN TRỊ BÁN LẺ CHAPTER 1

Most of the customers were satisfied by the promotions of the company including rebates, discounts, gifts, and other bundled services. However, the company also recognizes that there are many disadvantages: As a small company, the company does not have enough resources to open the showroom, leading to the price of the product being quite expensive when provided via the distribution agents. The staff sometimes makes mistakes as customer feel misdirected, experiencing late deliveries, sales practice are influenced by personal feelings of the seller, leading to difficulties in concluding the transaction and gaining an understanding of customer demands and requirements. Moreover, the staff sometimes cannot answer all the queries of customers in a limited time period and many customers are not able or prepared to wait. A promotion is being organized for general construction for two types of customer, which sometimes does not fit the type of customer, who may have a different need for each.
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HÀN QUỐC RE -FINAL

HÀN QUỐC RE -FINAL

G/SG/N/1/KOR/5Page 42.Such a Safeguard Measure has not been applied on the same product more than twice in thefive-year period immediately preceding the date of introduction of the measure.Article 20 (Review)(1)The Trade Commission may review whether to liberalize, withdraw or extend the duration ofthe Safeguard Measures before the end of duration of the Safeguard Measures.(2)In the event that the duration of a Safeguard Measure exceeds three years, the TradeCommission shall review as provided in paragraph (1) above not later than the mid-term of theSafeguard Measure.(3)The Trade Commission may recommend, according to the result of review under paragraphs(1) and (2), that the heads of the central administrative authorities concerned extend the duration ofthe Safeguard Measures if/where the Trade Commission determines that the Safeguard Measures arestill necessary for preventing or remedying serious injury to the domestic industry, and liberalize orwithdraw the Safeguard Measures if/where the Trade Commission determines that there are sufficientgrounds for liberalization or withdrawal thereof. Where the Trade Commission recommendsextension of the duration of the Safeguard Measures under the sentence above, the SafeguardMeasures shall be liberalized progressively.(4)Upon receipt of recommendation of liberalization, withdrawal, or the extension of theduration of the Safeguard Measures in accordance with paragraph (3), the heads of the centraladministrative authorities concerned shall decide whether to proceed as recommended in consultationwith other heads of the central administrative authorities concerned under Article 19(2) within theperiod provided in Article 19(1). In this case, the heads of the central administrative authorities
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Trắc nghiệm tiếng anh

TRẮC NGHIỆM TIẾNG ANH

101.Rachael Sword did not answer her client’s question because the company lawyer was able to answer it more efficiently. (A) she (B) her (C) herself (D) hers 102 According to a recent study conducted by MEC medical center, working over time may lead to low productivity. (A) frequently (B) truly (C) lately (D)relatively 103. Please remember that the tickets for the company concert are not . (A) transferable (B) transfer (C)transferred (D) transferring 104. The manager had trouble the project on time since he had to do everything by himself. (A) taking (B) competing (C) completing (D)claiming 105. of them is qualified enough for the job which the company is offering at the moment. (A) both (B) all (C) neither (D) most 106. It is required that you have your cars on a regular basis in order to prevent accidents. (A) check (B) to check (C) checked (D) checking 107. People who are interested in the company’s winter seminar should submit applications by Feb 21. (A) theirs (B) them (C) they (D) their 108. In order to get information regarding LK bank services, it is highly to visit the LK bank website. (A) committed (B) recommended (C) contented (D) behaved
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Analyzing service quality via QFD and SERVQUAL applications in accommodation services and distance learning

ANALYZING SERVICE QUALITY VIA QFD AND SERVQUAL APPLICATIONS IN ACCOMMODATION SERVICES AND DISTANCE LEARNING

... Using SERVQUAL to Measure Service Quality in Distance Learning 68 5.1 Service Quality in Distance Learning 68 5.1.1 History of Distance Learning 68 5.1.2 Customer Satisfaction in A Distance Learning. . .ANALYZING SERVICE QUALITY VIA QFD AND SERVQUAL: APPLICATIONS IN ACCOMMODATION SERVICES AND DISTANCE LEARNING ZHANG YU (B ENG.) A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT... Learning Program 71 5.1.3 Internet-based Learning 72 5.1.4 E -learning Services and System Provided by Huaxia Dadi Distance Learning Web 5.2 Measuring Service Quality of Internet-based Learning

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AQA MS04 W TSM EX JUN07

AQA MS04 W TSM EX JUN07

klmTeacher Support MaterialsMaths GCEPaper Reference MS04Copyright © 2008 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.Permission to reproduce all copyrighted material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright holders havebeen unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions if notified.The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number3644723) and a registered charity (registered charity number 1073334). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General.MS04Question 1Student ResponseCommentaryQuestion 1 was done well by most candidates. The solution selected exhibits a commonerror, which was to only find one value of χ²crit , usually the upper one. For this two tail test,the lower value was required, since the value of χ²calc falls below it and the null hypothesis,H0, is rejected, showing evidence that the headmaster’s belief is incorrect. Conclusions forhypothesis tests in this unit, as in others, should be given in context.Mark schemeMS04
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Setting up a new business requires hard work from the business founders and presidents.in your opinion,what things they should consider before setting up a new business

SETTING UP A NEW BUSINESS REQUIRES HARD WORK FROM THE BUSINESS FOUNDERS AND PRESIDENTS.IN YOUR OPINION,WHAT THINGS THEY SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE SETTING UP A NEW BUSINESS

I.Introduce. Good afternoon, every body.We are group 5. Today we are very happy to be here to present our topic.There are 5 members in our group:Thanh Hương,Nguyễn Hương,Hoàng Linh,Hoàng Lê and me. Today,our group will discuss topic: Setting up a new business requires hard work from the business founders and presidents.in your opinion,what things they should consider before setting up a new business. Our presentation is divided into 7 parts:market and market demand;financingcapital;knowledge;competition;location;law,rules and staffhuman power. II.Body. 1.Market and market demand. I will start with:market and market demand. First, find out if there is market demand for products or services you do not? Make a competitive analysis, find a place to open shop and establish a plan to offer differentiated products services. But the market research wanted to become a useful tool for business process later, you need to grasp the concepts and business ideas. Had in mind when the concept and the idea then, then you can determine whether new ideas turn into reality or not? To do this, you need to put some questions as follows: Firstly:The market for the product service you have saturated yet? For example, this city really need to add a shop selling computer hardware or a florist shop not? Secondly:What you will make offerings meet the needs of the market? If you are thinking of providing daily care for dogs or deploy an online service for the commercial business, or any special care somehow, things first, you need to consider your services are really important and necessary for the consumer? Customers would be like if no product service you? Thirdly:Your competitor is doing? This is very important, because ignoring your competitors will not know the potential threats to their business activities. Knowing the information about competitors will ensure you have a solid position in the market. To be able to look at problems from a systematically collected information, you have to arrange them in the following three categories: +The strength of competitors than you; + Your advantages compared to competitors; +The similarities between you and them. Lastly:You can reach the target audience or not? You need to know the information about the customer, such as gender, age, occupation, income, lifestyle, attitude and their social class. And have identified where the target audience is, you need to know: + Who are they, what will attract and appeal to them; +The number of people will fall into this category; +Their consumer preferences How; + They go shopping when and where. 2. Financing Capital To start a business must have good financial. What is capital? +Capital is the money or wealth needed to produce goods and services. All businesses must have capital in order to purchase assets and maintain their operations. +Business capital comes in two main forms: debt and equity. The Importance of Capital: +The capital has an important role in every business. It is a prerequisite for starting business operations. In order to build new plants, buy new equipment, develop new products, and upgrade information technology, businesses have to have money or capital. Not only that, in the course of business activities of enterprises, which are the conditions for enterprises to expand production both in width and depth, machinery innovation, increase product quality, increase employment and income for workers ... as well as organizational management apparatus fully functional. Thereby improving business efficiency, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises in the market. Cost of capital is the key to all business decisions How to search for business capital? +In addition to raising capital from relatives, friends, you can seek financing from collaborators, partners and customers in many different ways. You also have to consider alternatives to bank loans. The terms and conditions for borrowing funds will need to be studied such as the cost of borrowing, security required, rate of interest and the repayment terms. The owner will need to approach a number of banks to get information about their terms of lending and draw a comparative analysis to identify which funding is the most beneficial for you. 3. Knowledge expertise +You need to have an understanding of the field of activity of the company. You need to have expert knowledge of the market, financial, legal, ... Knowledge of marketing necessary to introduce, pr of your company to customers. This is an opportunity to attract more customers and give them a better understanding of your products. Also if there are communication skills is an advantage as well, looking for more investors and customers. If you have technical skills, you can tackle the job easier, solve the case quickly, there is no difficulty in trading. To have the expertise, you can learn in school or in business. 4.Competition. When starting a new business, we have many things to do and think. One of them, the competition is always happened. We can’t avoid it. The question which needs to be answered is “What is unique about the productservice which will be offerd to survive the market competition”? Informmation such as who are the competitors, what is their market strategy and what factors are required to complete with them are important. You need to reduce the competition, here are some suggestion: The first, Companies need to focus on new products. What they need to know to sell and to whom, how to sell that meet the needs of customers was selling, customers should not sell things there now. Because customers who paid for businesses should know their needs satisfied, the new businesses viable in the market, a way to capture the market quickly will launch many new models with features outstanding, beautiful forms will sell more The second ,it is the quality of the product. product is always coupled with quality and can not be separated. Customers buy products to satisfy the needs of individuals by their features so the quality is measured by the degree of satisfying the needs of the user. Companies should not sell items of poor quality because the buyer will not disposable and buy the company back again . Thus discrediting the enterprise, reduce purchasing power and can hardly compete with other businesses. The third,it is the price of the product. In the market, price is always a factor of concern both commercial customers because it is a measure of value. The product now closely linked to the profitability of the business. Also with customers is the amount they cost money in exchange for benefits from the products they sell to their business. Businesses should have appropriate pricing policies to meet the interests of both 2 sides. That is the promotion, discount policy, the policy applies to students good price to attract customers. Businesses can find intimate suppliers, input materials imported in large quantities in facilities known to be discounted, is guaranteed to reduce the cost of inputs leading to the product may be lower compared with the product of another business. The next , the customer care service, attitude of staff will greatly affect attitudes purchase preferences of customers. enterprises should attach importance to this issue because the customer is king if satisfied they are also beneficial for businesses. so companies need to recruit trained staff to work hard style friendly customer enthusiasm. Eg: Staff standing in front doors to welcome guests when they come to buy the bow, always considerate attitude glad to see visitors and introduce products dedicated to answer the buyers scabrous , do not be angry yell at customers when they unintentionally make mistakes that have to gently remind ... Finally , communication activities. This is an indispensable activity for a new business is looking up to a standing position in the market. It is important to provide information products to customers now that they know and come to the business. So businesses should invest in media to promote the brand to everyone. Good businesses should focus on marketing, product marketing to bring the enterprise to the consumer. Through advertising in the marketing business should not exaggerate the products good points that should convince them to consumer products business with the advertising program, the introduction of meaningful logos or programs try the product ... for them to see the reputation of the business through product consumption. 5.Location. When establishing a company, we need to care about some problems such as chosing headquaters ,especially primary headquater . Whether you are an entrepreneur to work overtime or work official hourly , location issues also become important to you. The success or failure of most businesses depends on the selection and evaluation of employers in finding a suitable location. Most businesses in our country are small and medium format, so hiring an office to work sometimes quite costly. To resolve this situation, saving office has gradually emerged. With low cost, you just have to pay a little for this office including staff, fax machine, telephone, ...Because office position effects the value of a company. A company located in a building of city centre will differ from a company located in a suburban .So,these are some issues to note when selecting location for the enterprise: + Should have an expert in real estate to help you in negotiating your lease or purchase locations .It can be your greatest contribution to your new company. + Ask to have the additional terms. Once expiry you can renew the lease or move away. +Consider the capabilities you need to expand your business and the location. To do this, your lease covenant should insist that if you need to expand the location, the area of your rent will be increased, you can move to a different location in the center or you can cancel the covenant. + Do not hury when makinhg a decision. There is no other place is the last good. +Do not judge subjectively rent. Pay fair rent for an ideal location. Do not let the lessor dictate all the lease terms. 6.Law,rules. Besides, when establishing a company, we can’t help caring about laws and regulations. An nascent enterprise will have many problems, so we should prepare legislations to compare with what we are doing. Law has influential in activities of company. In the regulation of company specify working time, rest time, labor safety, occupational health, reward, discipline… it’s clear for everyone. 7.Staff human power . Human resource is one of the most important problems that the founder needs to concern about when starting their own business. Therefore, preparing human resources is essential. First, make a list of necessary departments and estimate the suitable numbers of employees. Second, give technical requirements to each position. Final, we employ disciplined people, train professional employees and give them advantages working environment to develop their abilities so that the effect of work will improve. Employees can have a tremendous effect on sales and profitability you choose skilled workforce gains, targeting skills to meet the needs of your operation for now and in the future. Your skilled staff can result in better customer service, better work safety practices and productivity improvements. You improving loyalty III.Conclusion To establish a new business you should perform basic tasks such as job tren.Do are basic, most essential. It can help the company grow into a system and firmer. The above are all presentations of our team.Presentation of the group remains weak, your teacher wishes and suggestions for groups. Thank you for listening
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trắc nghiệm môn tiếng anh đề 02

TRẮC NGHIỆM MÔN TIẾNG ANH ĐỀ 02

101. Mr. Higgins’ experience in brand management within the health and wellness industry will be useful in his new role as Director of the Company. (A) extend (B) extensive (C) extensively (D) extension 102. Every year, the LION Co. donates amounts of money to various charities in the community. (A) radiant (B) abstract (C) disoriented (D) substantial 103. Imports from China account for forty percent of the total. (A) approximately (B) approximate (C) approximation (D) approximated 104. A new version of Apple Inc.s iTunes media software is currently for a release within the next week. (A) convinced (B) scheduled (C) represented (D) appointed 105. the reliable customer services offered by the company, the company has received more customer complaints compared to the last year. (A) although (B) Since (C) despite (D) If 106. Law enforcement officers have unique job functions, some of can be physically demanding and dangerous. (A) them (B) whom (C) that (D) which 107. The Employment Situation for January 2008 is scheduled to on Friday, February 1, at 8:30 A.M.
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IELTS ACADEMIC READING DOWNLOAD 2 WIND POWER

IELTS ACADEMIC READING DOWNLOAD 2 WIND POWER

turbines would be noisy and might interfere with television signals, but eventually,after showing local officials working wind farms in Denmark, they won and nowthere are 10 huge white wind turbines on the Delabole hills.It is in Germany and Denmark that the greatest advances in wind power havecome. Germany alone produces half of the wind generated electricity in Europe.Every year Germany adds 400 Megawatts (Mw) of capacity. In 2000 alonecapacity expanded by 1669 Mw. Denmark now produces 30% of its electricityfrom wind power and this is predicted to rise to 50% by 2010. Both countries haveencouraged this growth by “fixed feed tariffs” which guarantee a good price forprivate wind power operators.www.ieltsbuddy.com – Free Online IELTS AdviceBritain is catching up and the government has set a target 10% of all electricity tocome from renewable sources by 2010, half of this to be from wind power. The900 wind turbines in operation generate 400Mw of electricity and to meet thetarget roughly 400Mw will need to be added each year. With the advances intechnology this is technically possible. Each turbine can now produce 400Kilowatts (KW) compared to only 70 KW at the start of the 1980s. It will,however, need help from the government. This is being done by offering financialsupport and giving private power companies targets to meet.Because many people feel wind farms spoil the view and, also, because the windis stronger at sea, many wind farms are now being built offshore. They are usuallybuilt a few kilometres off the coast in shallow water. The construction andmaintenance costs are higher, but electricity output is higher. The first in Britainwas built in 2000 at Blyth, north of Newcastle, and was the largest in the worlduntil May 2001, when a 20 turbine farm was opened at Middelgruden offCopenhagen. There are plans to construct up to 18 more in the UK by 2010.Together they will produce 800 Mw of electricity annually.
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52693 NEGOTIATION ROLEPLAY

52693 NEGOTIATION ROLEPLAY

Student AYou are the CEO of Marketing company. One of your managers is feeling overworked andwants to hire a full-time assistant to help her. She is a very hard worker and you want to makeher happy. However, some of the other lazier managers might get angry if you let her have anassistant.Student BYou are the CFO of a Marketing company. The board of directors is pressuring you to reallyreduce costs. One of your managers is feeling overworked and wants to hire a full-timeassistant to help her. She is a very hard worker and you want to make her happy but you alsodon’t want to increase costs too much.Student CYou are a very successful manager at a Marketing company. You are feeling very overworkedand stressed. You want to hire a full time assistant to help you. Negotiate with the CEO andCFO of your company to get the help that you need.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Student AYou are the CEO of an Accounting company. Your employees rely on their computers for workevery day. You want to buy 100 new computers for your company but you would like adiscount for buying so many computers. You have 200 employees total so you may buy morecomputers later if you are satisfied. The highest price you can pay is $700 per computer.Student BYou are a computer Salesperson. The standard price for your computers is $800 dollars but youcan still make a profit if you sell them for $600. Lately, your boss has been angry at you forselling them at too low of a price. Your boss has encouraged you to sell extra services likemaintenance and training so you can sell the computers at a higher price.Student CYou are a computer Salesperson. The standard price for your computers is $800 dollars but youcan still make a profit if you sell them for $600. Lately, your boss has been angry at you forselling them at too low of a price. Your boss has encouraged you to sell extra services likemaintenance and training so you can sell the computers at a higher price---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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MARKETING QUỐC TẾ 5 CREATING LONG TERM LOYALTY RELA

MARKETING QUỐC TẾ 5 CREATING LONG TERM LOYALTY RELA

41) Which of the following can a company do to reduce defection?A) Attract new customers to try out the company's products.B) Increase customer lifetime value by increasing the non-monetary costs of products.C) Enhance the growth potential of existing customers through cross-selling and upselling.D) Distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better.E) Make low-profit customers more profitable or terminate the relationship.Answer: DPage Ref: 140Objective: 3Difficulty: EasyThe Marketing Funnel (Scenario)Amy and Jack were loyal customers of GreenFoods, a local grocery store. However, after acouple of incidents where they had to return products that were stale and out of date, the coupledecided to try out VeggiesNmore, a chain store that recently opened in town. Both Amy and Jackmust move through each stage in the marketing funnel before becoming loyal customers.42) Jack has shopped at VeggiesNmore. He was happy with the experience and thought that thiscould be an alternative to GreenFoods. However, he is also keen to try out other stores in theneighborhood. He is in the ________ stage of the marketing funnel as far as shopping atVeggiesNmore is concerned.A) awareB) open to trialC) most often usedD) nonrejecterE) regular userAnswer: DPage Ref: 140Objective: 3AACSB: Analytic skillsDifficulty: Moderate43) Amy is in the "aware" stage of the marketing funnel when she says ________.
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Quản Trị Bán Lẻ chapter 2

QUẢN TRỊ BÁN LẺ CHAPTER 2

Most of the customers were satisfied by the promotions of the company including rebates, discounts, gifts, and other bundled services. However, the company also recognizes that there are many disadvantages: As a small company, the company does not have enough resources to open the showroom, leading to the price of the product being quite expensive when provided via the distribution agents. The staff sometimes makes mistakes as customer feel misdirected, experiencing late deliveries, sales practice are influenced by personal feelings of the seller, leading to difficulties in concluding the transaction and gaining an understanding of customer demands and requirements. Moreover, the staff sometimes cannot answer all the queries of customers in a limited time period and many customers are not able or prepared to wait. A promotion is being organized for general construction for two types of customer, which sometimes does not fit the type of customer, who may have a different need for each.
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Fundamentals of global strategy a business model approach

FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL STRATEGY A BUSINESS MODEL APPROACH

This book looks at the opportunities and risks associated with staking out a global competitive presence and introduces the fundamentals of global strategic thinking. We define crafting a global strategy in terms of change: how a company should change and adapt its core (domestic) business model to achieve a competitive advantage as it expands globally. The conceptual framework behind this definition has three fundamental building blocks: a company’s core business model, the various strategic decisions a company needs to make as it globalizes its operations, and a range of globalization strategies for creating a global competitive advantage.
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EFFECTIVE BUSINESS WRITING FOR TAX EY

EFFECTIVE BUSINESS WRITING FOR TAX EY

Effective business writing for Tax T 1 Contents I: Introduction ...............................................................................................3 1. Why is written communication at Ernst Young so important? ...................................4 2. Why am I on this course? ............................................................................................5 3. Course aims ...............................................................................................................6 4. Structuring letters......................................................................................................7 II: The writing process....................................................................................9 1. The main steps ....................................................................................................... 10 III: Grammar review ..................................................................................... 19 1. Present perfect simple vs. past simple..................................................................... 20 2. Direct and reported speech...................................................................................... 22 3. Word order .............................................................................................................. 25 4. Recommend and suggest ......................................................................................... 27 IV: Production ............................................................................................. 30 1. Introductions.......................................................................................................... 31 2. Firming the conclusion............................................................................................ 34 V: Use of language ....................................................................................... 36 1. Plain English............................................................................................................ 39 2. The four Cs.............................................................................................................. 40 3. Six specific techniques to improve your writing style................................................ 40 4. George Orwell’s Golden Rules .................................................................................. 49 5. Principles of good writing LISTEN, LOOK, TOUCH .................................................. 50 2 VI: Cohesion ................................................................................................ 51 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 52 2. The basics of punctuation ........................................................................................ 53 3. Conjunctions ........................................................................................................... 54 4. Logical connectors .................................................................................................. 56 5. Runon sentences.................................................................................................... 60 6. A few more tips ....................................................................................................... 62 VII: Articles................................................................................................. 63 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 64 2. The noun approach .................................................................................................. 65 3. Proper nouns useful rules ...................................................................................... 66 4. Articles with countable and uncountable nouns ........................................................ 70 5. Common errors........................................................................................................ 73 6. Articles test ............................................................................................................ 74 VIII: Common mistakes ................................................................................ 75 1. Common vocabulary problems ................................................................................. 76 2. Rise raise arise ................................................................................................... 79 3. Describing time spans and limitations: until by....................................................... 81 4. Risk and exist .......................................................................................................... 83 5. Funny adjectives...................................................................................................... 84 IX: Grammar reference................................................................................. 85 1. Past perfect ............................................................................................................ 86 2. Conditionals ............................................................................................................ 87 3. Gerund versus infinitive ........................................................................................... 89 4. Defining and nondefining relative clauses................................................................ 92 5. How important are commas? ................................................................................... 93 6. Indirect questions.................................................................................................... 94 3 I: Introduction 4 1. Why is written communication at Ernst Young so important? What forms of written communication might EY people produce? Why might we produce this material? 5 2. Why am I on this course? My writing skills are already very strong. So why am I here? We spend time developing writing skills because: · so much of our output is in writing · people rely on our advice to make important decisions · our letters are visible and permanent · clients pay a lot of money for them. Even native speakers of English receive courses at EY to improve their written English. Indeed, some of the material here is based on a course given to people in the London office. People with good English writing skills spend less time rewriting documents and, therefore, leave the office earlier. J Good writing skills are crucial. They can always be improved. 6 3. Course aims This course will not teach you to write. What it will do is provide you with advice and techniques to improve the writing skills you already have. We will focus on the following areas: 1. Structuring letters 2. The cohesion of letters 3. Relevancy of information 4. Conciseness 5. Style 6. Reducing errors in certain areas 7. Eliminating errors in certain areas 7 4. Structuring letters Quickly review the letter below. Task 1: What is the purpose of the letter? Task 2: What is the basic structure of the letter? Dear Mr. Jones, Taxation of interest free loans Referring to your telephone conversation of 21 January 2002 with Peter Chrenko, we are pleased to provide you with our comments on the draft of the Loan Contract concluded between ABC CR s.r.o. (“ABC”) and its parent company, American ABC (“American ABC”). Background We were provided with a copy of the draft of the Loan Contract agreed between ABC and American ABC. We understand that the Loan Contract stipulates the conditions under which American ABC provided a loan of USD 3,000,000 to its Czech subsidiary. The question arises of whether the contract meets the conditions outlined in our letter dated 12 January 1999. If those conditions are met, then the loan may be treated as a form of equity contribution for the purposes of Czech gift tax. The interest free loan would, therefore, not be subject to gift tax on the interest saved. Legal analysis As outlined in our previous correspondence, there might be an exemption to the rule that the provision of an interest free loan to a Czech subsidiary represents a proprietary benefit which bears gift tax exposure in the Czech Republic. Section 658 of the Czech Civil Code allows contractual parties to agree on no interest on cash borrowings. According to a recent opinion of the Ministry of Finance, loans provided directly from the parent to its subsidiary should be viewed as equity contributions. Such loans do not reduce the value of the equity of the subsidiary and thus make the value of the parent companys investment in its subsidiary more valuable. Therefore, an interest free loan provided from a parent company to its subsidiary may be considered as having been made for consideration and should not carry any gift tax exposure. 8 The Loan Contract review We have reviewed the draft of the Loan Contract which you provided. The wording of the draft has all of the conditions necessary to meet the criteria outlined above for the loan to be treated as an equity contribution for the purpose of Czech gift tax. We believe that if the original of the Loan Contract has the same wording, the provision of the loan would bear only limited exposure for gift tax. Please note that this opinion is based on the current interpretation of the Ministry of Finance, which is not legally binding. There were cases in the past when the Financial Authorities raised assessments for gift tax in similar circumstances. However, a loan agreement drawn up under Section 658 of the Civil Code should be sufficient support for arguing against any attempt by the Financial Authorities to seek gift tax on the interest saved. Should the Financial Authorities assess gift tax for ABC in this respect, the Ministry of Finance is entitled to waive the tax and penalty assessed. Conclusion The existing wording of the Loan Contract provided to us should be, in our view, sufficient to minimise the exposure of gift tax for ABC on the interest saved. Nevertheless, there is still a minor risk that the Financial Authorities might issue an assessment for gift tax on the interest saved if they have a different opinion than that of the Ministry of Finance. To avoid this, we would recommend that this debt be capitalised into registered equity as soon as possible. Please note that this should happen in the form of a decision of the General Meeting on the increase of registered equity inkind. If you have any questions regarding the above, please do not hesitate to contact us. Yours sincerely, 9 II: The writing process 10 1. The main steps Good writing takes time (and lots of practice). It pays to follow these steps: A. Plan B. Outline C. Write D. Edit E. Review (proofread) Treating each step as a separate phase will improve the quality of your work. 11 A. Plan Always ask yourself the two key questions: 1. 2. The answers to these two questions will form the basis of your plan, a profile of the following: · Target reader · Reason for writing · Language to be used: requesting, complaining, informing, recommending, proposing, etc. · Format: letter, email, report, etc. · Layout: formal letter conventions, paragraphs, titles, etc. · Register: the style of language used. For example, when would you use the following? promotional dry and factual friendly and informal formal very technical or avoiding all unnecessary technicality using EY jargon or not complex and detailed or as simple as possible. Take time, however briefly, to think about these issues before you write. 12 Planning role play You are going to write on the same topic to two different target readers: a client and a colleague you know. What difference does the identity of the reader make? Target reader: Client EY colleague of 5 years Format: Register: Language used or not used (with specific examples): 13 B. Outline Decide what you are going to write and how your message will be organized An outline BRIEFLY summarizes the · content and · organisation of your written communication. The organisation should be logical and appropriate for the content. Discussion questions: 1. Do you always write an outline before writing? 2. Why write an outline? Practice A partner has asked you for a memo giving your opinion about the training for new audit staff members in Amsterdam. Isnt the training just a twoweek drinks’ party? Is it really of value? Should the firm send new staff to Amsterdam for training? Task: Write an outline of your memo. Use this method: List Categorise Arrange Fillingintheform method Instead of starting an outline from scratch you could fill in a standard form such as the one on the next page. When you have filled it in you will have the beginning of an outline. Then you can proceed to the document itself or continue to fill in more details. 14 Outline Form 1. Heading __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Introduction Reference to previous contact: With reference to your email of … Statement of what will be in the letter:…we are pleased to provide you with comments on the tax treatment of … __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Background Our understanding:________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Basis of the analysis below (What you asked us to do, i.e. purpose of the letter): The question arises as to whether the ………(possibly repeat client’s request)….. 4. Structured analysis Points that will persuade or inform your reader: Point a ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Point b ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Point c ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Conclusion Recommendations:__________________________________________________________ Future actions:______________________________________________________________ Maintain the relationship: We look forward to………. Should you have any further questions….. 15 C. Write Completely express your message in writing. In this step, you actually write the document. Completely express your thoughts in writing in an organized way according to your outline. D. Edit Edit for only: · content · organization. This step may consist of two, three or four steps, depending on how long and complex your communication is. If it is a fiftypage document, you may need to edit your draft a number of times. You may want to involve several other people who will read and comment on it for you. Your goal is to get the content and organization right. Check list · Is your message complete? · Is your message clearly stated? · Is it clearly organized? · Will your reader be able to understand what you wrote? · Are any changes necessary? If so, make those necessary changes now. 16 Editing a letter Task: Read this letter and then follow the instructions on the following page. Dear Mr Toffee, With regard to your letter of 6 June 2007, we are pleased to provide you with our comments on VAT in respect of advertising services provided by a Czech advertising agency to ABC. Situation ABC hired a Czech advertising agency based in Prague (“the agency”) to perform advertising services (TV commercials or billboard advertising) in France. The payments for these services were made directly in the Czech Republic (“the CR”) until the summer of this year. The amounts invoiced by the agency were recently discovered to include VAT. VAT treatment According to the Czech VAT Act, only the taxable supply provided in the territory of the CR is subject to Czech VAT. When considering advertising services, the place of taxable supply is deemed to be the place where the services are actually performed. In this particular situation, the place of taxable supply in respect of the advertising services is France. Therefore, the performance of advertising services by the agency for ABC in France is not subject to Czech VAT. Therefore, the agency should not charge any VAT to your company for these services. Recommendation As mentioned above, the agency is not entitled to charge any VAT on the advertising services provided to ABC in France. Hence, ABC is not obliged to pay this VAT. Therefore, we would recommend claiming back the amount of VAT already paid from the agency. The ultimate cost of VAT will not be borne by the agency as it can file a supplementary VAT tax return in respect of its lower tax liability and the VAT overpayment will be refunded by the Czech Financial Authorities. As a result, the VAT paid will not represent a cost to either ABC or the agency. The Czech VAT Act stipulates that a taxpayer (i.e. the agency) cannot claim back VAT incorrectly charged at a higher rate (i.e. the overpayment). However, this provision cannot be applied to your case as it only relates to taxable supplies which are subject to VAT. As mentioned above, the performance of advertising services outside the CR is not subject to Czech VAT. Conclusion Advertising services provided by a Czech advertising agency outside the territory of the CR are not subject to Czech VAT. The agency should not charge any VAT for its services provided to ABC. If the agency charged VAT, we believe that ABC should claim back the amount concerned. We trust that the above is suitable for your current purposes. Should you have any questions or comments, or if we can be of further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us. Yours sincerely, 17 Task 1: What is the basic structure of the letter? Task 2: What is missing from the letter? Task 3: Where would you insert the missing section? Task 4: Write the appropriate section below: 18 E. Review (proofread) At this point, you should no longer think about what you wrote (content), how you wrote it (language) or the organization. These aspects of the document should be completed in the editing phase. The proofreading phase is ONLY for: · spelling · format · grammar · punctuation. All of the details of the document are as they should be. There are NO mistakes. Good business writing should be perfect and free of errors. Use a dictionary if you are not sure how to spell words. Although they can be helpful, do not rely on Microsoft Word grammar check and spell check. Typing errors – beware Form From Risk Rusk Below Bellow Your You Withhold Withheld Send Sent Slow moving Slow mowing Fro For Can you think of any more? 19 III: Grammar review 20 1. Present perfect simple vs. past simple · Why is the present perfect used in each sentence? · Could we use the continuous? · If so, is there a change in meaning? 1. He has lived in the Czech Republic for ten years. 2. I have just finished the report. 3. I have been to America twice. 21 Task: Correct the typical mistakes made in these sentences. 1. Two years ago we have advised him to use the aggressive tax approach. 2. During 2002 the company has signed a contract with a Russian customer to sell the production line producing nuclear fuel containers. 3. (Talking to your expat colleague who lives in Frankfurt) How long are you in Germany? 4. (Written in the covering letter with an invoice) Although the project was very complicated and time consuming, we decided to provide you with a discount of over 40 per cent from our customary fees. 5. Based on our inquiries with the Commercial Register, the following changes were entered since the day of incorporation: 6. The Founding Agreement has been executed last week. 22 2. Direct and reported speech Task: Complete the table below, assuming that all of the indirect speech takes place the next day. Direct speech Reported speech a) John: “You look nice.” b) Jane: “I’m learning French.” c) He: “I’ve forgotten to do it.” d) The receptionist: “The client phoned.” e) You (the student): “I can’t swim.” f) The teacher: “I could swim when I was younger.” Rules · The rules above are valid when the reporting verb (said, explained, claimed) is in a past tense. · Both the original and reported speech can be used if the situation is still true. A native speaker would generally prefer the reported version: I didn’t know that John was married. (John is still married) 23 Reported speech exercise The following statements were made during an interview with PWC employees during a working papers review. The next week, our employee rewrote the statements. Fill in the missing verbs in the “reported speech” sentences. 1. Direct speech: “The internal controls of the Company within the payables cycle are properly designed and operating effectively and there are no material risks in this area of the Company’s balance sheet.” Reported speech: PWC concluded that the internal controls of the Company within the payables cycle _________________ properly designed and operating effectively and that there _________________ no material risks in this area of the Company’s balance sheet. 2. Direct speech: “We performed sufficient procedures noting no material issues.” Reported speech: PWC assured us that they __________________ sufficient procedures noting no material issues. 3. Direct speech: “Did you perform sufficient procedures to ensure that all subsequent events were properly disclosed and accounted for in the accompanying financial statements as at 31 December 2006?” Reported speech: We asked PWC if they ___________________ sufficient procedures to ensure that all subsequent events ___________________ properly disclosed and accounted for in the accompanying financial statements as at 31 December 2006. 24 4. Direct speech: “We performed our audit during the first few months of 2006, which gave us sufficient confidence about any material subsequent events that might have occurred after the yearend.” Reported speech: They explained to us that they ______________________ their audit during the first months of 2006, which ______________________ them sufficient confidence about any material subsequent events that might __________________after the yearend. 25 3. Word order Word order in positive English sentences is relatively fixed. (Time) Subject Verb (Indirect object) Object (Indirect object) Manner Place (Time) Many languages permit the placement of the object in front of the verb. English does not. Important note Verb + object: the object usually comes immediately after the verb. 26 Task: Each of the sentences below has a group of words incorrectly placed. Move them to the correct position in the sentence. 1. The Company only from time to time pays its invoices. 2. ABC plc will be obliged to include in its indemnification payment to XYZ plc the appropriate VAT. 3. Mr Koleso informed us that on 30 March and 31 March will be held a meeting between Ragamuffin and FGHJ, where documents regarding the establishment of the joint venture will be discussed. 4. Moreover, obliged to file a petition to declare bankruptcy are the members of the Company’s management board. 5. We reviewed during our discussion with Mr Smith the tax deductibility of the expenses. 6. We understand from our discussion with Mr Smith that the Company is charged by XYZ about €1,500,000 per annum. 7. The Company undertakes to pay for the use of the computer equipment €300 per hour. 8. The specific taxation treatment depends on the wording of the current CzechGerman Double Taxation Treaty, which enables to be taxed the capital gain from ownership interest in the Czech Republic. 27 4. Recommend and suggest The following sentence is incorrect. How many ways can you think of to correct it? We recommend to use ABC plc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 28 Accuracy Checklist Refer to this checklist when using SUGGEST and RECOMMEND. We recommend We suggest You might consider You should mightcould It is suggested It is (absolutely ) essential ... followed by J J J … X (a noun) J … do X ( J … to do X ( J J J J … you do X … you to do X J J J J … that you do X J J J J … that X be done J J J … doing X ( Notes on using suggest and recommend · Suggest and recommend in the active are never followed by to, eg: I recommend that you go. Not: “I recommend you to go.” · When using recommend in the passive, the infinitive form will follow, eg: I have been recommended to consult Ernst Young. 29 Task: Correct the mistakes in the sentences below. 1. We suggest to the Company creating a set of formal internal rules starting with the most important areas. 2. We recommend to the local management to check whether the registration has not already been filed by headquarters. 3. We would strongly recommend to the Company’s management to translate all the contracts into German to avoid any disputes with local authorities. 4. We recommend to the statutory representatives of the Company to obtain this tax registration statement as soon as possible. 5. We suggest to research the different financial instruments available on the market and use them in order to maximise the benefits of the available cash. 6. We suggest to use a spreadsheet package such as EXCEL to calculate foreign exchange rate differences. 7. We recommend that the Company is prepared to substantiate that the pricing method used corresponds with the arm’s length principle and that its purchase and sales pricing policy is fair and consistent. 8. We recommend the management to prohibit this treatment in order to ensure compliance with tax and accounting legislation. 9. We recommend to formulate a policy for the creation of a provision for slow moving and obsolete inventory. 30 IV: Production 31 1. Introductions Task: Give the following introductions a score of between one and ten where 1=poor and 10=excellent. Use the following criteria and be able to justify your opinion: · Does it capture the reader’s attention? · Does it tell the client what the letter is about? · Does it specifically identify previous contact with the client? · Is it clear and concise? · Does it avoid being just a formality? 1. Dear Mr White We would like to respond to your question which arose from our meeting of 21 October. 2. Dear Mr Black Further to our previous correspondence regarding the matter, we would like to inform you about the latest development of the situation. We believe that the situation is now clear enough to make conclusions and we are glad to provide you with several possible solutions. 3. Dear John In our last telephone conversation, we discussed Figaro’s intention to provide its employees with free coffee and chocolate. You explained that the employees would probably be given 500g chocolate and 500g coffee per month. The tax implications of this issue are considered below. 4. Dear Mr Green Further to your meeting yesterday with Mr Vlk and several officials in the city, we are writing now with our thoughts as to how Screen might best structure its activities in the Slovak Republic with the joint objectives of maximising its ability to recover input VAT charged by local suppliers of goods and services and by the Customs authorities on importation of goods from abroad, and minimising its exposure to Slovak corporate income taxes. 32 5. Dear Gina Further to our recent meeting, we set out below our comments on the practical and legal aspects of the potential sale of shares in Yellow Park Centre (YPC) by one of the shareholders Penguin International Building (PIB). 6. Dear Jack As we would like to keep you informed about the issues that may appear to be in your interest, please find below an overview of the response received from the Ministry of Finance to our request for confirmation of the VAT treatment of computer software. 7. Dear Freda We refer to your email of 11 January 2002. It is possible to transfer the ownership of the unbuilt yachts under Slovak law. 8. Dear Mr Scarlet Further to our meeting of 21 January 2002, we are pleased to provide you with our comments relating to the tax implications on the proposed changes of the group structure in Slovakia. 33 Task: Write introductions for the following situations, varying the introductory phrases as much as you can. 1. You received a letter on the first of this month from Ms. Rachel Wright, requesting information on the tax consequences of setting up a branch office of her company, MicroMax, in Slovakia. 2. Two days ago your colleague, Ján Klag, spoke on the phone to Michal Novak of NovaPak, who wanted to be advised about the resignation procedure for a member of the Board of Directors. On the same day, Novak sent a fax confirming the request, which Ján has passed to you to deal with. 3. You had a meeting on Friday of last week with Jane Hollander to discuss the various options for setting up an importexport business, trading in textiles, in the Netherlands. In order to take her plans forward you are sending her some forms which she needs to complete and send back to you by the end of this week. 34 2. Firming the conclusion Q: Given the background of the client’s situation and the analysis, what comes next? A: A concise interpretation of what should be done (a conclusion). The conclusion should be: ß clear, concise, effective ß a good reference point ß enable the client to make an informed decision choice ß easy to act on. Common ways to signal a conclusion In view of the above, In light of the above, Based on the above, Given the facts stated previously, Taking into consideration the alternatives various implications given, Considering the alternatives implications of X, Considering that (comes before premises) Taking into account that (comes before premises) We have come to the conclusion that We can conclude that We conclude, therefore, that Original: Referring to the above, the contract includes various services which are subject to various VAT rates. Thus, it is recommendable that each service be billed separately and the proper VAT be applied. Revised: Considering that the contracts mentioned above include various services which are subject to different VAT rates, we recommend that each service be billed separately and the proper VAT be applied. Original: Written contracts are a preventative measure against future disputes similar to those encountered in the past. We understand that the licensing contract between Smiles US and Smiles CR in respect of the trademark and trade name has not been concluded in writing. We recommend that this contract is concluded in writing. Revised: Given the fact that written contracts are a preventative measure against disputes, the trademark trade name licensing contract between Smiles US and Smiles CR should be concluded in writing. 35 Task: Read the concluding information below. Revise them and transform them into effective conclusions. You may need to add create premises. a) We stated several rules above concerning the tax residency status of expatriates working in the Czech Republic. As you can see, your tax planning ideas and their impact will depend on whether the individual becomes Czech taxresident or non taxresident. Tax nonresidency can be achieved if an individual is able to prove that he does not spend more than 183 days in a calendar year in the Czech Republic and he does not have a place of residence here. Of course you should keep in mind that all individual and economic circumstances have to be taken into account to avoid any general conclusions on this very general tax issue. b) As we stated in more detail above, it is possible to apply for investment incentives for a newly established entity. However, there is a risk that it would not be approved by the MOF and there is also the risk that it would be attacked by the Superior Controlling Office in the future. Technofrog can either establish a new entity or can apply for investment incentives for the expansion of existing production 36 V: Use of language 37 39 1. Plain English In groups, write simple sentences which retain the same overall meaning as the long sentences below. The new versions should be readable, with no jargon, and to the point. 1. It is of considerable importance for the author to bear in mind, in connection with the devising of a formal written document intended for information or persuasion, that the use of clarity in the selection of vocabulary and syntax will have a substantial influence on the relative ease of perusal by the intended recipient of the document, particularly in its association with the rapidity of interpretation and degree of comprehension. 2. Members of the public who are classified by the legal system as being incapable of caring for themselves because of their limited age should be aware that placing themselves on the public highway without another person of substantial age can be most precarious and hazardous to health and should be approached with a high degree of caution and awareness commensurate with the undertaking of the same. 3. I am responding to your recent written communication regarding an enhancement in your remuneration package outside the normal bounds of the company appraisal system and wish to inform you that your aforementioned request has been unsuccessful. 4. This change will allow us to better leverage our talent base in an area where the developmental roles are under way and strategically focuses us toward the upcoming business system transition where systems literacy and accuracy will be essential to maintain and to further improve service levels to our customer base going forward. What overall message can we take from this exercise? 40 2. The four Cs Our written communication should be: · concise Avoid being unnecessarily detailed or wordy text. · clear Use simple yet professional language. · coherent Make sure that ideas flow well and there is an overall logic. · comprehensible Preference is given to shorter sentences. 3. Six specific techniques to improve your writing style 1. Use the active, not the passive. 2. Use “active verbs” (not “we held a discussion concerning”, but “we discussed”). 3. Use verbs instead of noun phrases. 4. Leave out unnecessary words. 5. Avoid long sentences. 6. Avoid old language (quid pro quo, a priori, therein) The overall rule is ‘write as you speak’. This way, your message should get across clearly and concisely. 41 1. Active versus passive Look at these sentences: 1a) The manager restructured the compensation package and made bonuses possible. 1b) Bonuses were made possible when the compensation package was restructured by the manager. 2a) The reports must be filed by Tuesday. 2b) You must file the reports by Tuesday. Which do you prefer? What are the advantages of using the active voice? Use the passive voice: · to protect the person (diplomacy) · to stress the action rather than the person (procedures) · when the person is unknown. . Use the active voice in all other cases. 42 The active voice Task: Rewrite these sentences, replacing the passive voice with the active voice where appropriate. 1. The statement of the problem was set forth by the divisional director. 2. Avoidance of the problem should be sought. 3. It has been suggested that a review board be established by the finance department to oversee cash flow. 4. It is believed that an increase in profits over the last quarter would make bonuses a possibility this year. 5. Assignments were made without regard for the employees’ previous experience and existing responsibilities. 6. The final written summary was provided to you by email on 20 December 2003. 7. Goods for CZK 1.24 billion and a gross profit of nearly CZK 175 million were produced by the ZSNP Group in January 2000. 8. As requested by you, the column HBI of the balance sheet and profit and loss account of the consolidation package of the Company has been audited by us. 43 2. Active verbs Unlike many languages, English is a language that prefers verbs to nouns. Make changes to the following sentence to make it sound more “English’. We had a meeting with the client last week during which we had a discussion about his situation. Task: Make changes to the sentences below, if necessary. 1. The Company provides leasing of geological research and special mining equipment. 2. My client has reached the decision that if there is a continuation of your action in this manner the termination of the contract will be taken into consideration by her. 3. The commercial agent is entitled, on behalf of the interested party, to offer to deliver the goods to potential customers under the following conditions: 4. We need the board of directors to provide proof that they met on 18 November 2006. 5. Additionally, there is not enough information that would enable us to make a reliable estimate of the date of completion of the Year 2005 remediation plan. 6. The parties should take into consideration the different functions of the supplier and customer. 7. We will review and suggest amendments and changes to the contract on construction work that your firm will sign with the firm that will perform the building of your new factory. 8. Our tax advisory services will be provided under the supervision of John Smith, who will have the responsibility of being responsible for our tax advisory services to the Company. 44 3. Verbs instead of noun phrases Task: Rewrite these sentences, changing the noun phrases to verbs where possible. Make any other necessary changes. 1. The following conditions are determined by the Ministry for companies to take participation in the tender process. 2. This tool would enable local managers handling its activities more efficiently and faster reactions when facing unexpected economic results. 3. The compensation will be made at the reception of the invoices. 4. The company had a payment inability and therefore the bankruptcy proceedings started on 23 March 2006. 5. The sale of property by the bankruptcy administrator is in process. 6. There is an expectation that the bankruptcy proceedings will be at an end in the year 2008. 7. An official tender is currently in process of preparation. 45 4. Leave out unnecessary words Redundant words Task 1: Identify the redundancies in the sentence below. The consensus of opinion is that our advance planning was absolutely essential. Task 2: The words in italic below are unnecessary. Underline any that you use and eliminate them from your writing. Actual experience and etc. ask the question attached hereto at some later date basic fundamentals blendjoinmixmerge together final conclusion for a period of two weeks foreign imports goals and objectives collectcombine together completely filled consequent results continue on cooperate together enclosed herewith estimated to be about exact opposites few in number largesmall in size mutual cooperation one and the same past experience plan aheadfor the futurein advance reason is because recurrepeat again true facts potential risk risks and chances In the year 2007, … 46 Task: Delete the redundant words from the following sentences. 1. Finally, we found it slightly difficult to fill out the questionnaire. 2. Under points no. 2 and 3 below, we would like to specify our recommendations which could be, in our opinion, solved by XYZ in the future. 3. On the other hand, interest payment received under an interest rate swap should rather be included at the gross amount. 4. In the month of August we ascertained during the calculation process that source compensation information provided to us was not absolutely correct. 5. XYZ plc should be able to prove that the services charged in the year 2006 were actually provided at the invoiced amount and that the company really benefited from them. 6. If the foreign entity does not currently provide management services to ABC, the advertisement costs cannot simply be covered under this heading. 47 In the amount This phrase is extremely rare in English. In most cases it can be deleted completely. Sometimes we will need the phrase up to the value of (or similar). Improve the following sentences by making any necessary changes: 1. From 1 January to 7 September 2007, XYZ Bank realised capital gains from the sale of shares in the amount of approx. €4.5m, and capital losses of approximately €2.8m. 2. Bonds may be issued in the amount equal to as much as 50 per cent of the registered capital of the company. 3. The following individuals are the current partners and executives of this company: Mr Smith, residing at Husova 1, Prague, with a contribution in the amount of €34,000 being fully paid up. 4. If DEF breaches any obligations of the pledge agreement, a contractual penalty in the amount of €4.5m will become payable. 5. The credit agreement with ABC Bank was concluded on 2 March 2006 for the amount of €40m to finance the acquisition of the plant. 48 5. Avoid long sentences Techniques for dealing with overlong sentences: Rewrite Cut into shorter sentences Reduce number of words Use linking words Cut redundant words Task: Make the passages below easier to read by using any of the techniques discussed. 1. We believe it is necessary to consider the main features of both structures and mainly the facts and circumstances surrounded around the relevant countries, and it is crucial to properly distinguish between the two alternative structures as they involve different tax consequences in the Czech Republic. 2. Many employees do not participate in share option schemes. The reason for this is that the employees quite often do not understand the scheme rules and it is not clear to them how they may benefit from participating in the employer’s share scheme, and namely what is expected from them. 3. Notwithstanding the above said, we believe that if ABC Capital does not operate locally (i.e. its activities are not considered as business activities carried out on the territory of the Czech Republic), reclassification of loans to deposits does not pose any substantial risk with respect to potential violation of Czech banking legislation (for foreign exchange implications – see below). 4. The Real Estate Transfer Tax Act stipulates that the first real estate transfer for consideration or the first transfer of a new building which has been technically approved, or is under construction and has not been used yet, is tax exempt provided that the endorser (seller) is a natural person, who is registered in the Commercial Register or is a legal entity and the real estate transfer is made in connection with business activity. 5. Based on the wording of the Real Estate Transfer Tax Act, the tax administrator can conclude that the purpose of the Act was intended only for cases where the endorser provided a new building within the framework of his business activity, whose subject is construction activity or the sale and purchase of real estate and this new building is transferred in favour of a new proprietor. 49 4. George Orwell’s Golden Rules 1. Never use a long word where a short one will do. 2. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. 3. Never use the passive where you can use the active. 4. Never use a foreign phrase, scientific word or jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Politics and the English Language, 1946 50 5. Principles of good writing LISTEN, LOOK, TOUCH 1 LISTEN · Try to develop a “writer’s ear” a sense of what your writing will sound like to the person reading it. · Try reading the letter aloud to yourself. · Have you missed out any information? · Have you explained things in the right order? · Are the most important points given appropriate emphasis? · Are there any words which the reader will not understand? · Is the tone right not too friendly or too formal? 2 LOOK · What impression will the letter make on the reader’s eye? · Short paragraphs are easier to read. · Short sentences are easier to read. · Short words are easier to read. · Split infinitives, faulty punctuation and grammatical mistakes give a bad impression. · The communication should give a confident impression. 3 TOUCH · Try to put your finger on what your client really wants to know. · Make the letter relevant to the client’s own situation. · Leave out unimportant information. · Quantify or give concrete examples to illustrate your explanations. · Anticipate your client’s questions and answer them. · Keep himher constantly in mind. 51 VI: Cohesion “The act or condition of sticking together” 52 1. Introduction Any form of written communication (ranging from sentence to paragraph to novel) is cohesive if it uses certain linguistic devices such as: · conjunctions · logical connectors · clear sentences limited to one idea · appropriate formatting · other features of noticeable organisation. The end result of a cohesive piece of writing is that it is easy to read and easy to refer back to. It makes complex ideas simple to understand. 53 2. The basics of punctuation Task 1: What are the following punctuation marks called? . , ? ’ ( ) “ ” ; : Task 2: Now match each punctuation mark with the appropriate use. 1. a question mark a. to end a sentence , a mild command or an indirect question 2. a full stop period b. used as a substitute for a full stop to indicate a relationship between two main clauses and in lists 3. quotation marks c. introduces sentence elements that explain, illustrate, or amplify earlier portions of a sentence 4. an apostrophe d. to end a direct question 5. an exclamation mark e. for emphasis; rarely used in business correspondence. 6. a colon f. indicates possession or a contraction 7. parentheses g. used to indicate that text is taken from another source; also used when introducing a new term. 8. a semicolon h. separate incidental information from the rest of a sentence 9. a comma i. used to separate the items in a list or to show where there is a slight pause in a sentence 54 3. Conjunctions Conjunction: a word that joins two clauses and The exchange rates were considered and the financial statement was amended. but We did the work but did not charge the client. so The work was done without charge so we could improve our relationship. that We are aware that the POA is no longer valid. because The penalty was not assessed because the contract forbade it. although We did not hire her although her CV was impressive. if We will inform you if we encounter any problems. Punctuation: Task 1: What punctuation is used in the sentences above? Task 2: Which of these sentences could have their parts rearranged? How would the punctuation differ? 55 Task: Find and correct the common errors in each of the sentences below. 1. Although the deadline for this year has passed you may wish to consider applying for next year. 2. If we require further information we will contact you immediately. 3. Although, the item was included in the agenda, it was not discussed. 4. I neither want to travel for nineteen hours on a bus, or do I want to stay in a seedy hotel whose restaurant serves bad food. 5. And please, remember that the deadline is 15 January. 6. Because we value your business we will give you a discount of 10%. 7. Please let us know, if you would like us to elaborate on the structuring implications. 8. We think, that the benefits far outweigh the risks involved. 56 4. Logical connectors Logical Connectors: words or phrases whose function is to show some logical relationship between two or more sentences. Using logical connectors properly is essential in the production of good writing. There are four major categories of logical connectors. The selection below highlights these four categories and the subcategories most frequently used in business writing. In groups, try to come up with examples for each subcategory. Addition Exemplification Clarification Additive ConflictContrast Concession Adversative Cause Reason Effect Result Condition Causal Chronological Summation Sequential Logical Connectors In addition, additionally, moreover, 57 Logical connectors placement Logical connectors can typically occur in three places 1. Clause initially 2. Clause medially 3. Clause finally (rarely used in business correspondence) Task: Complete the following. 1. When logical connectors are placed clause initially, what type of punctuation is typically used? Examples: What are the exceptions to this? 2. When placed clause medially, what type of punctuation is used? Examples: 58 Logical connectors – gap fill Task: Choose the most effective logical connector to fill in the blank. Pay attention to the punctuation in the sentence. 1. The redundancy programme operates within strict legal time periods _________ it is very important that you plan ahead for this. a) furthermore b) for instance c) nevertheless d) so 2. Penalties are imposed if deadlines are breached. __________ there is a chance that the deadlines can be renegotiated. a) Besides b) Therefore c) Nevertheless d) In view of this 3. I am sending you details of the changes in the laws about carrying losses forward or back __________ you can study them before our next meeting. a) so that b) in order to c) since d) for 4. The reduction of trade barriers will help to increase exports __________ it will also assist your competitors. a) despite b) in other words c) whereas d) although 5. It is worth considering the introduction of a new stock option plan _________ the old one is no longer so attractive to your senior managers. a) so that b) besides c) because d) whereas 6. Given the state of diplomatic relations with the country concerned, it may be illegal to enter into this agreement ____________ the provisions in it would be legal elsewhere. a) despite the fact that b) although c) consequently d) since 7. You will not be able to take legal action ____________ you can prove you have satisfactory grounds. a) while b) although c) in spite of d) unless 59 Logical connectors – error correction Task: Correct the examples below for punctuation errors. 1. Historically, the Czech Republic developed these two arrangements for employing foreign employees, on the other hand the implications arising are different and should be allocated correctly. 2. There is a risk that the Tax Authority will attempt to collect tax from the foreign artists, however we are not aware of any developments in this respect. 3. Therefore the French subsidiary will not have any expense in its accounting books, on the other hand their employees will realise taxable employment income. 4. We believe that the employee should not be involved in calculating a simple estimate of the withholding taxes required, first the employee may not be able to do so, and also in our proposed scenario the employee will be required to file his personal income tax return. 5. The purpose of the reporting duty is primarily statistical, therefore, compliance will not affect the rights of the entities participating in the scheme. 6. Domestic law does not provide a precise distinction between the two structures however the Ministry of Finance issued regulations which contain certain guidelines to be followed. 60 5. Runon sentences A sentence that has too many subjects or verbs and is connected incorrectly is called a ‘runon sentence. Example of a runon sentence: We have completed five interviews, each interview took one hour and was based on our special Best Practice questionnaire. This example is actually two sentences joined together without a conjunction, i.e. 1. We have completed five interviews, 2. each interview took one hour and was based on our special ‘Best Practice’ questionnaire. To correct runon sentences, use: · conjunctions · punctuation (e.g. full stops) · other (depends on the sentence). Task: Correct these runon sentences. 1. I wrote the report, Mary spent a lot of time reviewing it for me. 2. You could go to the Italian Alps for Christmas, I doubt you’d find much snow there at that time of year. 3. Jason said he couldn’t come to dinner, he needed to stay in the office and work. 4. I’ve read that book, it’s very interesting and well worth reading. 5. The highway was under construction, we had to take a different route to work. Remember short sentences are generally better than long ones. 61 Task: Using punctuation and conjunctions, correct the long andor runon sentences. 1. The Company has 351 of its own employees, the average count for the sixmonth period in 2007 was 335. 2. Other financial income in 2005 includes in particular the settlement of the provision for exchange rate losses, other financial expenses in 2006 include primarily the creation of this provision. 3. The potential payment could come to approximately €18m, legal proceedings have not concluded as at the date of our report and no reserve had been recorded as at 30 June 2006. 4. Thank you very much for all you have done for me regarding this meeting, I’m very grateful to you. 5. There are also a number of large investment funds waiting to open, whose share prices have shown very good capital returns during 2005 and 2006, the main ones are managed by ABC Bank and XYZ Trust. 6. We completed the report, we are still waiting for final approval. 7. I finally contacted the vendor, he had been on holiday. 62 6. A few more tips Subclause inserts · We agreed, in spite of the risks, to take part in the joint venture. · The structure is, in our opinion, feasible from the British tax perspective. Enclose these “side comments” in commas. Please · Please refer to section 6 above. · Please send this POA to him. · Please make an attempt to keep accurate records. · Please don’t use a comma after please. We do not use a comma after please in English. That · Please note that your accounts do not follow International Accounting Standards. · I believe that you understand what I mean. · We understand that the director has fled to Switzerland with all the money. There is no comma before that in English. 63 VII: Articles 64 1. Introduction Complete these two sentences with the correct articles. My brother lives in _______ house in London. _______ house is in Wimbledon. What are the names of the articles? Why do speakers use them? Are they important? A Czech lawyer wrote to his client: Under Czech law, the contract is not valid unless it is signed. instead of: Under Czech law, a contract is not valid unless it is signed. How might the client be confused or misled? Articles are used with nouns. Nouns can be divided into two main groups. What are they? Can you give some examples? 65 2. The noun approach Common nouns The use of articles with common nouns depends on the context. Can you explain why each article is used in the following six sentences? 1. Did you go to the pub yesterday? 2. We went to a great pub in Prague. 3. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 4. Could I borrow a pen? 5. The house is in Wimbledon. 6. Got a light? Proper nouns The use of articles with proper nouns does not generally depend on the context, ie, we can learn the correct article and use it in all contexts J 66 3. Proper nouns useful rules 1) Acts Sections Accounts with number, no article e.g. deposited on account 544, referring to section 45 (2) 2) Acts without number, with article e.g. the VAT Act 3) Gerund phrase turned noun Developing a clear plan is time consuming The development of a clear plan is... 4) Company names No article unless included in their official name e.g. Microsoft 5) Corporations and Groups The is used e.g. the Microsoft Corporation 6) Abbreviations that are spelt out The is used e.g. the EU, the OECD, the CNB Exception: When the abbreviation is the name of a company e.g. KPMG, VSZ 7) Abbreviations that are read as a word – no article e.g. UNICEF, NATO 67 DEFINITE COMMON NOUNS We know which one We spoke about it before There is only one ( the head of tax) Postnoun modification (information comes after the noun which helps the listener identify it) i.e. The advantages of having a laptop are X, Y and Z.) INDEFINITE COMMON NOUNS We don’t know exactly which one (yet) It doesn’t matter which one (any) (i.e. I want a glass of water.) DEFINITE examples NOT DEFINITE examples Typically there is no article used. However, there are many exceptions to this 68 DEFINITE COMMON NOUNS We know which one We spoke about it before There is only one ( the head of tax) Postnoun modification (information comes after the noun which helps the listener identify it) i.e. The advantages of having a laptop are X, Y and Z.) INDEFINITE COMMON NOUNS We don’t know exactly which one (yet) It doesn’t matter which one (any) (i.e. I want a glass of water.) DEFINITE examples the Please take the Cigna file to the meeting. Is there any coffee in the kitchen? the The advantages of the merger far outweigh the risks. The evaluations you asked for aren’t finished. the I’ve already done the homework. Please bring me the information I asked for. NOT DEFINITE examples aan You should consider choosing an Ltd. for your company’s legal form. I don’t have a problem with it. Some, any , 0 You need to buy some drinks. (0)Clients are important. 0, some, any Do we have any homework? I need some fresh air. 0Watching TV isn’t good for you. NOUNS Common Proper COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE SINGULAR PLURAL Typically there is no article used. However, there are many exceptions to this 69 Countries The majority of countries do not take an article before their name (e.g. France, Germany) but there are three categories which do. Category 1 – where “the” is part of the country name. (two examples) Category 2 – where the country name includes a noun relating to the political structure of the country. (six examples) Category 3 – where a named region existed before the political country existed. (three examples) 70 4. Articles with countable and uncountable nouns Task: Complete the following sentences using the indefinite article, the definite article, the zero article or some other modifier (i.e. many, several, etc.) I’m sorry I’m late. I was in …. meeting. What time does …. meeting start? He’s not here. I’m afraid he’s gone to …. meeting. …. meetings are a waste of time. We’ve had …. meetings with our client on this issue. We’ve scheduled …. series of meetings with the tax authorities for next week. Task: Fill in the gaps below The only …. advice I ever give is don’t listen to my …. advice This client doesn’t like …. advice we gave him. He wants us to give him …. advice, but he doesn’t want to pay for it. …. advice does not come cheaply. …. advice we offered was accepted without reservation. 71 Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns, which are always singular, can be used without any article or determiner. Or, they can be used with the. For example, “Productivity is increasing.” Or, “Knowledge is power.” Productivity and knowledge are uncountable nouns and can be used without any article or other determiner. Note that we cannot say either “a productivity” or “productivities,” because “productivity” is an uncountable noun. The concepts singular and plural do not apply to uncountable nouns. An uncountable noun cannot be plural; it is always singular. Indefinite articles (aan) are never used with the plural form of countable nouns. Indefinite articles are never used with uncountable nouns. (There are exceptions) Uncountable nouns cannot be plural. It is very important to know whether a noun is countable or uncountable. Countable nouns Countable nouns are generally for things that can be counted. They naturally occur as countable units, e.g. a personpeople. It is easy to identify one person or two people. Summary of article options for different classes of nouns 1. Singular countable: aan; the 2. Plural countable: no articlethe 3. Singular, uncountable: no articlethe 4. Other determiners can also be used. 72 Task: Look at these words; if they are countable nouns, put “a” or “an” in front of them; if they are uncountable nouns, put a dash. 1. a dog 13. profit 2. pollution 14. legislation 3. computer 15. job 4. advice 16. work 5. information 17. productivity 6. software 18. cash 7. trip 19. problem 8. law 20. currency 9. research 21. market 10. trouble 22. travel 11. tax 23. litigation 12. taxation 24. homework 13. staff 25. personnel How can we write about one of the uncountable nouns in the exercise above? 73 5. Common errors Question: What is wrong with these sentences? 1. Main difference between our assessment of the required provision and the Bank’s is that we take into account the worsening situation in the Turkish economy. 2. Letter of credit is fully collateralised by a cash deposit. 3. Structure of term deposits is as follows: 4. Company is bankrupt and the Bank is in the process of executing the collateral. 5. Balance relates to the maintenance of cars. 6. Rest of the remuneration should be stated in the Employment Agreement as a salary. Question: What is wrong with these sentence fragments? 1. Based on the yesterday’s discussion with Mr X, we have … 2. Under the Deutsche Telekom’s Company Pension Plan, … Task: Find the common mistake in these sentences. 1. Michael also asked other EY offices for an advice in this respect. 2. Under Treaty, tax residency of an individual who is a tax resident in both countries is determined in following way. 3. Possible solution might be for XYX Austria to finance the events. 4. Please find attached the copy of the engagement letter. 5. The Company has created a legal reserve fund as stated in Act on Supplementary Insurance. 6. The approval from Ministry of Work and Social Affairs was obtained on 16 September 1997. 7. The Company was established on 3 June 1996 by following companies: 8. On 2 June 2001, the auditor issued an opinion on the financial statements prepared according to the Czech GAAP. 74 6. Articles test Add articles as necessary: Who was Beethoven? What did he do? _____ tourist in Vienna was going through _____ graveyard, when all of a sudden he heard __________music. There were no other people around, so he started searching for ________source. He finally located _________origin and found that it was coming from _______grave with _________headstone that read: Ludwig van Beethoven17701827. Then he realized that _____music was _______ Ninth Symphony and it was being played backward Confused, he left _______graveyard and persuaded _______friend to return with him. By the time they arrived back at _______grave, _______music had changed. This time it was _______ Seventh Symphony, but like the previous piece, it was being played backward. Curious, the men agreed to consult_______music scholar. When they returned with _______scholar, _______Fifth Symphony was playing, again backward. _______scholar noticed that the symphonies were being played in the reverse order in which they had been composed, _____9th, then _______7th, then _______5th. By the next day, word had spread and _______crowd had gathered around _______grave. They were all listening to _______Second Symphony being played backward. Just then _______graveyard’s caretaker walked up to _______group. Someone in _______crowd asked him if he had _______explanation for _______music. “Don’t you get it?” _______caretaker asked incredulously. Beethoven is ___________________. 75 VIII: Common mistakes 76 1. Common vocabulary problems Each sentence below contains one common vocabulary mistake. Can you identify the mistake in each case and correct the sentence? 1. The documents were filed in the Company’s evidence on 31 December 2006. 2. The Company filed an insurance claim for the technology that was stolen last month. 3. Please deliver the completed form to our personal department. 4. We will need other meeting before we can finalise the report. 5. The Company has own internal audit department. 6. For more information on EY’s mobile phone regulation, please refer to our intranet. 7. ABC plc has three daughter companies in the Netherlands. 77 Evidencerecords ‘Evidence’ in many European languages does not mean ‘evidence’ in English. It is usually best translated as ‘record(s)’ or possibly ‘files’. ‘Evidence’ in English is something that tends to prove or disprove a fact. It is usually used in a legal context to talk about documents or testimony of witnesses used in court proceedings. It can be used in auditing to mean information taken from records and used to support an opinion or conclusion. Mary is very intelligent. Oh, really? What evidence of that do you have? 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Autozone inc corporate finance strategies harvard case solution analysis

Autozone inc corporate finance strategies harvard case solution analysis

Autozone inc corporate finance strategies harvard case solution analysis Problem: The issue occurred when Mr. Edward decided to take out his shares from the company. As he is the main shareholder of the company, this situation will have an impact on its investors who may also divest their shares from the company. If this happens then company will be in debt which will reduce the credit rating of the company. Another problem related to this is, the repurchasing of the shares which will impact on leverage of the company. Finance Alternatives: There are three financial alternatives through which the company can improve their capital leverage and their credit rating of the company. First Alternative is to increase the debt with the limit of 40% and checking out the credit rating category and operating cash flow used for repurchasing. Second alternative is to prevent the increase in the repurchase of shares to maintain the company’s financial leverage with acquisition. The last alternative is to maintain the shares up to 60% and debt to 40% for maintaining the capital structure and regaining the investors’ confidence regarding the enterprise value and its position in terms of returns.
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Bài tập có giải ngoại ngữ chuyên ngành 2

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Corporate finance consist of the financial activities related running a _____(1)___. Corporate finance includes planning, raising, investing and ____(2)_____ of finance. The ____(3)____of corporate finance is to accomplish the financial aims of the company. Corporate finance is primarily concerned with maximizing the return on the finance through longterm and shortterm financial planning_____(4)_____. One of the most important tasks of corporate finance is to make capital____(5)____. The decision process of making capital investments is mainly concerned with capital ____(6)____. So in the first step of investing, you need to look at your whole company’s financial picture. Though capital budget, we can answer the question “How much finance is required by the company” Second, assess your____(7)____ for risk in order to identify capital expenditure ___(8)____ by company. Third, make your____(9)____, start by establishing the broad categories that will make up your portfolio such as stock, bonds and other investment ventures. Finally, make your decisions on question like:” How much capital is used to invest?. Where to invest in?”. In addition to handling the use of investment capital, corporate finance is also responsible for sourcing capital in the form of debt or____(10)____.
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A GUIDE TO WED MARKETTING

A GUIDE TO WED MARKETTING

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Mastering metasploit 2nd

Mastering metasploit 2nd

Metaploit is a popular penetration testing framework that has one of the largest exploit databases around. This book will show you exactly how to prepare yourself against the attacks you will face every day by simulating realworld possibilities. We start by reminding you about the basic functionalities of Metasploit and its use in the most traditional ways. You’ll get to know about the basics of programming Metasploit modules as a refresher, and then dive into carrying out exploitation as well building and porting exploits of various kinds in Metasploit. In the next section, you’ll develop the ability to perform testing on various services such as SCADA, databases, IoT, mobile, tablets, and many more services. After this training, we jump into realworld sophisticated scenarios where performing penetration tests are a challenge. With reallife case studies, we take you on a journey through clientside attacks using Metasploit and various scripts built on the Metasploit framework. By the end of the book, you will be trained specifically on timesaving techniques using Metasploit.
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MARKETING QUỐC TẾ 13 DESIGNING AND MANAGING SERVICES

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ADVANCED ACCOUNTING 5TH EDITION JETER TEST BANK

ADVANCED ACCOUNTING 5TH EDITION JETER TEST BANK

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MẪU ĐƠN XIN VIỆC BẰNG TIẾNG ANH DÀNH CHO VỊ TRÍ GIÁM ĐỐC KINH DOANH.

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Nguyen Van ATan Binh, HCMCM: 09090909xxE: nguyen….@gmail.com14th June 2014Mr. Nguyen Van BHR ManagerABC manufacturing companyDistrict 9, Ho Chi Minh CityDear Mr. B,Apply to: Sales Executive positionI am pleased to find your advertisement for Sales Executive position on Careerlink.vn. I feelthat it is direct match with my qualifications and experience.I have got Bachelor Degree in Business Administration with two years in sales of electronicsgoods. In my recent position as a Sales Executive for DEF Electronics Company, developingsale network of selected products in the South region. I have had the opportunity to increasesales by 25% during the first year, 35% during the second year and named “Sales Executiveof the Year” for outstanding performance.I possess aggressive marketing and good negotiating skills. My verbal communication skillsand positive attitude makes me an effective communicator with my customers. Given theopportunity, I would be able to become an excellent representative of your sales team.Please consider the enclosed resume to know more about my professionalism, backgroundand skills. I look forward to have an opportunity of discussing my application with youfurther and how I can significantly contribute to the ongoing of your reputable company.Yours sincerely,Nguyen Van A
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