OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLES IN JAVA

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Ví dụ lập trình cho DVP PLC

VÍ DỤ LẬP TRÌNH CHO DVP PLC

Industrial Automation Business Unit (IABU) of Delta Electronics focuses our expertise on Drive, Motion and Control with our knowledge and experience in automation control. Our RD teams continue researching and developing key technologies, producing innovative products in industrial automation; for example many OEM’s use our automation products for processing machines used in the food industry, textile industry, chemical industry, electronics industry, metal industry and plastic industry. Our automation equipment is also used in the pharmaceutical industry, printing industry, as well as for energy saving airconditioning and water treatment facilities. In recent years, we have integrated our industrial automation products, developed industrial control networks, and offered integration services to our clients around the world. Deltas DVP series highspeed, stable and highly reliable PLCs are applied in various automation machines. In addition to its fast logic operations, abundant instructions, various extension cards and costeffectiveness, DVP series PLCs support many communication protocols, seamlessly integrating the industrial automation control system as a whole. To meet users’ needs for DVPPLC programming examples, we provide examples of basic instructions including sequentialposition control, timed counting and inputoutput control in DVPPLC Application Examples. In addition, in this manual we also provides examples of advanced instructions including elementary arithmetic operations, data processing, high speed inputoutput control, network connection, and PLC communication(AC motor drive temperature controller servo motor). DVPPLC Application Examples includes most common applications in automation control, such as parking lot entryexit control, material mixing, stock monitoring, level monitoring, traffic lights control, and conveyer belt control. This manual explains methods for applying basic instructions as well as advanced instructions of DVPPLC to accomplish the field application purposes. Users can easily understand how DVPPLC features in automation applications through this manual. By referring to our DVPPLC Application Manual【Programming】, users can also apply DVPPLC efficiently on particular purposes and fulfill various control requirements in industrial automation
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structural and Stress analysis phân tích cấu trúc và áp lực

STRUCTURAL AND STRESS ANALYSIS PHÂN TÍCH CẤU TRÚC VÀ ÁP LỰC

This book is not intended to be an additional textbook of structural and stress analysis for students who have already been offered many excellent textbooks which are available on the market. Instead of going through rigorous coverage of the mathematics and theories, this book summarizes major concepts and important points that should be fully understood before students claim that they have successfully completed the subject. One of the main features of this book is that it aims at helping students to understand the subject through asking and answering conceptual questions, in addition to solving problems based on applying the derived formulas. It has been found that by the end of a Structural and Stress Analysis course, most of our students can follow the instructions given by their lecturers and can solve problems if they can identify suitable formulas. However, they may not necessarily fully understand what they are trying to solve and what is really meant by the solution they have obtained. For example, they may have found the correct value of a stress, but may not understand what is meant by “stress”. They may be able to find the direction of a principal stress if they know the formula, but may not be able to give a rough prediction of the direction without carrying out a calculation. To address these issues, understanding all the important concepts of structures and stresses is essential. Unfortunately, this has not been appropriately highlighted in the mainstream textbooks since the ultimate task of these textbooks is to establish the fundamental theories of the subject and to show the students how to derive and use the formulas. Leaving out all the detailed mathematics and theories found in textbooks, each chapter of this book begins with a summary of key issues and relevant formulas. This is followed by a key points review to identify important concepts that are essential for students’ understanding of the chapter. Next, numerical examples are used to illustrate these concepts and the application of the formulas. A short discussion of the problem is always provided before following the solution procedure to make sure that students know not only how but also why a formula should be used in such a way. Unlike most of the textbooks available on the market, this book asks students to answer only questions that require minimum or no numerical calculations. Questions requiring extensive numerical calculations are not duplicated here since they can be easily found from other textbooks. The conceptual questions ask students to review important concepts and test their understanding of the concepts. These questions can also be used by lecturers to organize group discussions in the class. At the end of each chapter, there is a mini test including both conceptual and numerical questions. Due to the abovementioned features, this book is written to be used with a textbook of your choice, as a useful companion. It is particularly useful when students are preparing for their examinations. Asking and answering these conceptual questions and reviewing the key points summarized in this book is a structured approach to assess whether or not the subject xii Preface has been understood and to identify the area where further revision is needed. The book is also a useful reference for those who are taking an advanced Structural and Stress Analysis course. It provides a quick recovery of the theories and important concepts that have been learnt in the past, without the need to pick up those from a more detailed and, indeed, thicker textbook
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MONITORS THREADS (DEPRECATED)

MONITORS THREADS (DEPRECATED)

Monitors (Deprecated) Aroundthetimeconcurrentprogrammingwasbecomingabigdeal,objectoriented programming was also gaining ground. Not surprisingly, people started to think about ways to merge synchronization into a more structured programming environment. One such approach that emerged was the monitor. First described by Per Brinch Hansen BH73 and later refined by Tony Hoare H74, the idea behind a monitor is quite simple. Consider the following pretend monitor written in C++ notation: Note: this is a “pretend” class because C++ does not support monitors, and hence the monitor keyword does not exist. However, Java does support monitors, with what are called synchronized methods. Below, we will examine both how to make something quite like a monitor in CC++, as well as how to use Java synchronized methods. In this example, you may notice we have our old friend the account and some routines to deposit and withdraw an amount from the balance. As you also may notice, these are critical sections; if they are called by multiple threads concurrently, you have a race condition and the potential for an incorrect outcome. In a monitor class, you don’t get into trouble, though, because the monitor guarantees that only one thread can be active within the monitor at a time. Thus, our above example is a perfectly safe and working
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JAVA PROGRAMMING WITH ORACLE JDBC

JAVA PROGRAMMING WITH ORACLE JDBC

objects such as Enterprise JavaBeans(EJB), client/server applications have becomemultitiered. Such multitier applications, which can have three, four, or even more tiers, arereferred to as n-tier applications (in which n is more than two tiers). For example, someone usinga browser on a PC can execute a servlet on another host computer. The computer on which theservlet runs is known as an application server, and it in turn might execute EJB on a third hostcomputer, which would be known as a component server. The component server might contactyet another server, a database server running Oracle, to retrieve and store data. In this example,we have four tiers: personal computer, application server, component server, and databaseserver. Distributing the software over four computers is one means of scaling up an application tohandle a larger volume of transactions.With respect to the n-tier application, it's possible to deploy that application so the applicationserver, component server, and database server are all on the same host computer. In such ascenario, we would still call it an n-tier application because the division of labor among programsis a factor greater than two. The key point to note is that while we can run all the server softwareon the same host computer, the n-tier architecture allows us to distribute the application overmultiple servers if necessary. Did you notice in these last two examples how a server might alsobe a client? The servlet running on the application server was the client to the EJB running on thecomponent server, and so forth.Now that you have a better understanding of the term client-sever, let's continue by looking at thedifferent types of clients that utilize JDBC and Oracle.1.2.2 Types of ClientsAs far as application development using Java is concerned, prior to Oracle8i, there were twotypes of clients: an application and an applet. Both run in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), but anapplet runs in a browser, which in turn runs as an application. Typically, an application has liberalaccess to operating-system resources, while an applet's access to those resources is restrictedby the browser. I say typically, because using the Java Security API can restrict an application'saccess to operating-system resources, and with a signed applet, or security policies, you can gainaccess to operating-system resources. Another distinction between applications and applets is
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ALGORITHMS PART I, 4TH EDITION

ALGORITHMS PART I, 4TH EDITION

Strings (Chapter 5) are an essential data type in modern computing applications.We consider a range of methods for processing sequences of characters. We begin withfaster algorithms for sorting and searching when keys are strings. Then we considersubstring search, regular expression pattern matching, and data-compression algorithms. Again, an introduction to advanced topics is given through treatment of someelementary problems that are important in their own right.Context (Chapter 6) helps us relate the material in the book to several other advancedfields of study, including scientific computing, operations research, and the theory ofcomputing. We survey event-driven simulation, B-trees, suffix arrays, maximum flow,and other advanced topics from an introductory viewpoint to develop appreciation forthe interesting advanced fields of study where algorithms play a critical role. Finally, wedescribe search problems, reduction, and NP-completeness to introduce the theoreticalunderpinnings of the study of algorithms and relationships to material in this book.The study of algorithms is interesting and exciting because it is a new field(almost all the algorithms that we study are less than 50 years old, and some were justrecently discovered) with a rich tradition (a few algorithms have been known for hundreds of years). New discoveries are constantly being made, but few algorithms arecompletely understood. In this book we shall consider intricate, complicated, and difficult algorithms as well as elegant, simple, and easy ones. Our challenge is to understandthe former and to appreciate the latter in the context of scientific and commercial applications. In doing so, we shall explore a variety of useful tools and develop a style ofalgorithmic thinking that will serve us well in computational challenges to come.www.it-ebooks.info71.1BASiC ProgrAMMing MoDelOur study of algorithms is based upon implementing them as programs written inthe Java programming language. We do so for several reasons:
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NoSQL data models trungtt dhbkhn

NOSQL DATA MODELS TRUNGTT DHBKHN

011214 1 NoSQL data models VietTrung Tran is.hust.edu.vn~trungtv 1 Eras of Databases •  Why NoSQL? 2 011214 2 Before NoSQL 3 RDBMS onesizefitsallneeds 4 011214 3 ICDE 2005 conference 5 The last 25 years of commercial DBMS development can be summed up in a single phrase: one size fits all. This phrase refers to the fact that the tradi.onal DBMS architecture (originally designed and op.mized for business data processing) has been used to support many datacentric applica.ons with widely varying characterisHcs and requirements. In this paper, we argue that this concept is no longer applicable to the database market, and that the commercial world will fracture into a collecHon of independent database engines, some of which may be unified by a common frontend parser. We use examples from the streamprocessing market and the datawarehouse market to bolster our claims. We also briefly discuss other markets for which the tradiHonal architecture is a poor fit and argue for a criHcal rethinking of the current factoring of systems services into products. After NoSQL 6 011214 4 RDBMS vs. others 7 NoSQL landscape 8 011214 5 NoSQL raising 9 10 011214 6 Why NoSQL •  “The whole point of seeking alternatives to RDBMS systems is that you need to solve a problem that relational databases are a bad fit for.” Eric Evans Rackspace 11 Why NoSQL contd •  ACID does not scale •  Web applications have different needs –  Scalability –  Elasticity –  Flexible schema semistructured data –  Geographically distributed •  Web applications do not always need –  Transaction –  Strong consistency –  Complex queries 12 011214 7 NoSQL use cases •  Massive data volume (Big volume) – Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Facebook – 10100K servers •  Extreme query workload •  Schema evolution 13 Relational data model revisited •  Data is usually stored in row by row manner (row store) •  Standardized query language (SQL) •  Data model defined before you add data •  Joins merge data from multiple tables –  Results are tables •  Pros: Mature ACID transactions with finegrain security controls, widely used •  Cons: Requires up front data modeling, does not scale well 14 Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, MicrosoW SQL Server, IBM DB2 011214 8 Keyvalue data model •  Simple keyvalue interface – GET, PUT, DELETE •  Value can contain any kind of data •  Pros •  Cons •  Berkley DB, Memcache, DynamoDB, Redis, Riak 15 Keyvalue vs. table •  A table with two columns and a simple interface – Add a keyvalue – For this key, give me the value – Delete a key •  Super fast and easy to scale (no joins) 16 011214 9 Keyvalue vs. locker 17 vs. Relational Model 18 011214 10 Memcached •  Open source inmemory keyvalue caching system •  Make effective use of RAM on many distributed web servers •  Designed to speed up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load –  Simple interface for highly distributed RAM caches –  30ms read times typical •  Designed for quick deployment, ease of development •  APIs in many languages 19 •  Open source inmemory keyvalue store with optional durability •  Focus on high speed reads and writes of common data structures to RAM •  Allows simple lists, sets and hashes to be stored within the value and manipulated •  Many features that developers like expiration, transactions, pubsub, partitioning 20 011214 11 •  Scalable keyvalue store •  Fastest growing product in Amazons history •  Focus on throughput on storage and predictable read and write times •  Strong integration with S3 and Elastic MapReduce 21 •  Open source distributed keyvalue store with support and commercial versions by Basho •  A Dynamoinspired database •  Focus on availability, faulttolerance, operational simplicity and scalability •  Support for replication and autosharding and rebalancing on failures •  Support for MapReduce, fulltext search and secondary indexes of value tags •  Written in ERLANG 22 011214 12 Column family store •  Dynamic schema, columnoriented data model •  Sparse, distributed persistent multidimensional sorted map (row, column (family), timestamp) > cell contents 23 Column families •  Group columns into Column families •  Group column families into SuperColumns •  Be able to query all columns with a family or super family •  Similar data grouped together to improve speed 24 011214 13 Column family data model vs. relational •  Sparse matrix, preserve table structure – One row could have millions of columns but can be very sparse •  Hybrid rowcolumn stores •  Number of columns is extendible – New columns to be inserted without doing an alter table 25 Bigtable •  ACM TOCS 2008 •  Faulttolerant, persistent •  Scalable –  Thousands of servers –  Terabytes of inmemory data –  Petabyte of diskbased data –  Millions of readswrites per second, efficient scans •  Selfmanaging –  Servers can be added removed dynamically –  Servers adjust to load imbalance 26 011214 14 •  Opensource Bigtable, written in JAVA •  Part of Apache Hadoop project 27 Hadoop? 28 011214 15 •  Apache open source column family database •  Supported by DataStax •  Peertopeer distribution model •  Strong reputation for linear scale out (millions of writes second) •  Written in Java and works well with HDFS and MapReduce 29 Graph data model •  Core abstractions: Nodes, Relationships, Properties on both 30 011214 16 Graph database (store) •  A database stored data in an explicitly graph structure •  Each node knows its adjacent nodes •  Queries are really graph traversals 31 Compared to Relational Databases OpHmized for aggregaHon OpHmized for connecHons 011214 17 Compared to Key Value Stores OpHmized for simple lookups OpHmized for traversing connected data Compared to Document Stores OpHmized for “trees” of data OpHmized for seeing the forest and the trees, and the branches, and the trunks 011214 18 35 36 011214 19 •  Graph database designed to be easy to use by Java developers •  Diskbased (not just RAM) •  Full ACID •  High Availability (with Enterprise Edition) •  32 Billion Nodes, 32 Billion Relationships, 
 64 Billion Properties •  Embedded java library •  REST API 37 Document store •  Documents, not value, not tables •  JSON or XML formats •  Document is identified by ID •  Allow indexing on properties 38 011214 20 Relational data mapping •  T1–HTML into Objects •  T2–Objects into SQL Tables •  T3–Tables into Objects •  T4–Objects into HTML 39 Web Service in the middle •  T1 – HTML into Java Objects •  T2 – Java Objects into SQL Tables •  T3 – Tables into Objects •  T4 – Objects into HTML •  T5 – Objects to XML •  T6 – XML to Objects 40 T1 T3 T2 T4 Object Middle Tier Relational Web Browser Database T5 Web Service T6 011214 21 Discussion •  Objectrelational mapping has become one of the most complex components of building applications today – Java Hibernate Framework – JPA •  To avoid complexity is to keep your architecture very simple 41 Document mapping •  Documents in the database •  Documents in the application •  No object middle tier •  No shredding •  No reassembly •  Simple 42 ApplicaHon Layer Database Document Document 011214 22 •  Open Source JSON data store created by 10gen •  Masterslave scale out model •  Strong developer community •  Sharding builtin, automatic •  Implemented in C++ with many APIs (C++, JavaScript, Java, Perl, Python etc.) 43 •  Apache project •  Open source JSON data store •  Written in ERLANG •  RESTful JSON API •  BTree based indexing, shadowing btree versioning •  ACID fully supported •  View model •  Data compaction •  Security 44
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Advanced corba programming with c++

ADVANCED CORBA PROGRAMMING WITH C++

Here is the CORBA book that every C++ software engineer has been waiting for. Advanced CORBA® Programming with C++provides designers and developers with the tools required to understand CORBA technology at the architectural, design, and source code levels. This book offers handson explanations for building efficient applications, as well as lucid examples that provide practicaladvice on avoiding costly mistakes. With this book as a guide, programmers will find the support they needto successfully undertake industrialstrength CORBA development projects. The content is systematicallyarranged and presented so the book may be used as both a tutorial and a reference. The rich example programs in this definitive text show CORBA developers how to write clearer code that ismore maintainable, portable, and efficient. The authors’ detailed coverage of the IDLtoC++ mapping moves beyond the mechanics of the APIs to discuss topics such as potential pitfalls and efficiency. An indepth presentation of the new Portable Object Adapter (POA) explains how to take advantage of its numerous features to create scalable and highperformance servers. In addition, detailed discussion of advanced topics, such as garbage collection and multithreading, provides developers with the knowledge theyneed to write commercial applications.
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Theory and problems of programming with c++ 1996

THEORY AND PROBLEMS OF PROGRAMMING WITH C++ 1996

Like all Schaum’s Outline Series books, this is intended to be used primarily for self study, preferably in conjunction with a regular course in C++ Programming. The book covers nearly all aspects of ANSIIS0Standard C++. It includes over 200 examples and solved problems. The author firmly believes that programming is best learned by practice, following a wellconstructed collection of examples with complete explanations. This book is designed to provide that support. C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup in the 1980s. Based upon C and Simula, it has become the most popular language for objectoriented programming. The final ANSIIS0Standard was just recently completed, so some of the standard features described in this book may not yet be available on all compilers. In particular, the powerful Standard Template Library is just now becoming available from some vendors. Although most people who undertake to learn C++ have already had some previous programming experience, this book assumes none. It approaches C++ as one’s first programming language. Therefore, those who have had previous experience may need only skim the first few chapters. C++ is a difficult language for at least two reasons. It inherits from the C language economy of expression that novices often find cryptic. And as an objectoriented language, widespread use of classes and templates presents a formidable challenge to those who have thought in those terms before. It is the intent of this book to provide the assistance necessary firsttime programmers to overcome these obstacles.
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SURPAC INTERPOLATOR

SURPAC INTERPOLATOR

Prior to proceeding with this tutorial, you should have: 1. Installed Surpac v6.0 or later. 2. A good understanding of basic Surpac concepts. 3. A good understanding of Surpac Block Modelling concepts, especially the estimation process for ordinary kriging. 4. A good understanding of geostatistical concepts. If you do not have all of these, it is highly recommended that you work through the examples in the Introduction to Surpac, Block Modelling, and Geostatistics tutorials.

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Oracle Essbase Oracle OLAP: The Guide to Oracle’s Multidimensional Solution

Oracle Essbase Oracle OLAP: The Guide to Oracle’s Multidimensional Solution

We explain what OLAP is and why it is important. Realworld case studies highlight Oracle products, but can also help you envision how OLAP in general enhances business intelligence in an organization. We introduce general OLAP concepts and design principles before showing how they map to Oracle products. Productspecific information includes architecture, application design, application building, and maintenance considerations. We also cover enduser analysis tools, reporting tools, and other frontend applications that can leverage OLAP data. You do not need to have a technical background to understand the concepts we cover in this book. OLAP benefits everyone in the organization, and we try to make the information in this book accessible to all. Whether you work in the IT department or in the line of business, such as finance, sales, research, or marketing, you stand to gain a better understanding of OLAP concepts in general and Oracle’s OLAP solutions in particular. Because this book is intended for people in a wide variety of roles, including DBAs, architects, planners, business analysts, and potential consumers of OLAP results—from salespeople to CEOs to marketing managers—the level of detail in the book varies from highlevel overview down to technical details. Most chapters begin with introductory material suitable for anyone, and then delve into technical product details.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING WITH JAVA WWW BIT LY TAIHO123

AN INTRODUCTION TO OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING WITH JAVA WWW BIT LY TAIHO123

generation is introduced in this chapter. The optional section explains how thenumerical values are represented in memory space.• Chapter 4 teaches the basics of creating programmer-defined classes. Wekeep the chapter accessible by introducting only the fundamentals with illustrative examples. The key topics covered in this chapter are constructors, visibility modifiers (public and private), local variables, and passing data tomethods. We provide easy-to-grasp illustrations that capture the essence ofthe topics so the students will have a clear understanding of them.• Chapter 5 explains the selection statements if and switch. We cover booleanexpressions and nested-if statements. We explain how objects are comparedby using equivalence (==) and equality (the equals and compareTo methods).We use the String and the programmer-defined Fraction classes to make thedistinction between the equivalence and equality clear. Drawing 2-D graphicsis introduced, and a screensaver sample development program is developed.We describe the Java 5.0 feature called enumerated type in this chapter.• Chapter 6 explains the repetition statements while, do–while, and for. Pitfallsin writing repetition statements are explained. One of the pitfalls to avoid isthe use of float or double for the data type of a counter variable. We illustratethis pitfall by showing a code that will result in infinite loop. Finding the greatest common divisor of two integers is used as an example of a nontrivial loopstatement. We show the difference between the straightforward (brute-force)and the clever (Euclid’s) solutions. We introduce the Formatter class and showwww.traintelco.comwu23305_fm.qxdxiv2/17/0910:38 AM
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LEARNING COCOA WITH OBJECTIVE-C (2002)

LEARNING COCOA WITH OBJECTIVE-C (2002)

information at your fingertips in the form of Apple's own documentation. Installed on yoursystem along with the Developer Tools, Apple's docs can be found in /Developer /Documentation in both PDF and HTML format. If you have a fast or constant link to theInternet, you can save some space on your hard drive by dumping these docs in the Trashand using the online documentation found at http://developer.apple.com.When Apple updates their documentation, they often first postthe revisions online, so you might want to keep that URL handy.Additionally, there are some online resources-mailing lists and web sites-that you shouldsubscribe to and read frequently. A listing of these resources can be found in Appendix B,located at the back of this book.[1]Learn the ways of the Force, Luke-just stay away from the Dark Side.Book: Learning Cocoa with Objective-CSection: PrefaceAudienceAs the title implies, this is a "Learning" book-a book for newcomers to Cocoa andObjective-C. This book assumes you have a basic knowledge of ANSI C and that you'reopen to learning the concepts of object-oriented programming. If you're not familiar with Cand you haven't programmed with Java or some other compiled language, you might wantto hold off on reading this book just yet. Likewise, if you're already familiar with ObjectiveC or have programmed for NeXTSTEP, chances are this book will be too basic for yourliking. Not that you can't pick something up from reading it, but this book is better suitedfor newcomers.Who Should Read This BookAs mentioned earlier, this book was written for programmers who are interested in learning
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INTERLUDE: THREAD API

INTERLUDE: THREAD API

This chapter briefly covers the main portions of the thread API. Each part will be explained further in the subsequent chapters, as we show how to use the API. More details can be found in various books and online sources B89, B97, B+96, K+96. We should note that the subsequent chapters introduce the concepts of locks and condition variables more slowly, with many examples; this chapter is thus better used as a reference. CRUX: HOW TO CREATE AND CONTROL THREADS What interfaces should the OS present for thread creation and control? How should these interfaces be designed to enable ease of use as well as utility? 27.1 Thread Creation The first thing you have to be able to do to write a multithreaded program is to create new threads, and thus some kind of thread creation interface must exist. In POSIX, it is easy: Thesecondargument, attr,isusedtospecifyanyattributesthisthread might have. Some examples include setting the stack size or perhaps information about the scheduling priority of the thread. An attribute is initialized with a separate call to pthread attr init(); see the manual page for details. However, in most cases, the defaults will be fine; in this case, we will simply pass the value NULL in. Thethirdargumentisthemostcomplex,butisreallyjustasking: which function should this thread start running in? In C, we call this a function pointer, and this one tells us the following is expected: a function name (start routine), whichispassedasingleargumentoftype void (as indicated in the parentheses after start routine), and which returns a value of type void (i.e., a void pointer). If this routine instead required an integer argument, instead of a void pointer, the declaration would look like this:
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JAVA PROGRAMMING NGÔN NGỮ LẬP TRÌNH JAVA

JAVA PROGRAMMING NGÔN NGỮ LẬP TRÌNH JAVA

languages, like COBOL and FORTRAN, dominated the mainframe market). But, with time programmers found that programming in C became tedious with its structural syntax.[3]Although, people attempted to solve this problem, it would be later that a new development philosophy was introduced, one named Object-Oriented Programming. With OOP, youcan write code that can be reused later without rewriting the code over and over again. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++, an enhancement to the C language with includedOOP fundamentals and features.The Green teamBehind closed doors, a project was initiated in December of 1990, whose aim was to create a programming tool that could render obsolete the Cand C++ programming languages. Engineer Patrick Naughton had become extremely frustrated with the state of Sun's C++ and C APIs(Application Programming Interfaces) and tools. While he was considering to move towards NeXT, he was offered a chance to work on newtechnology and the Stealth Project was started, a secret nobody but he knew.This Stealth Project was later named the Green Project when James Gosling and Mike Sheridan joined Patrick.[1] Over the period of time thatthe Green Project teethed, the prospects of the project started becoming clearer to the engineers working on it. No longer was its aim to create anew language far superior to the present ones, but it aimed to target the language to devices other than the computer.Staffed at 13 people, they began work in a small office on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California. This team would be called Green Teamhenceforth in time. The project they underwent was chartered by Sun Microsystems to anticipate and plan for the "next-wave" in computing.For the team, this meant at least one significant trend, that of the convergence of digitally controlled consumer devices and computers.[1]James Gosling, architect anddesigner of the compiler for theJava technologyReshaping thoughtThe team started thinking of replacing C++ with a better version, a faster version, a responsive version. But the one thing they hadn't thought of, as of yet, was that the languagethey were aiming for had to be developed for an embedded system with limited resources. An embedded system is a computer system scaled to a minimalistic interface demandingonly a few functions from its design. For such a system, C++ or any successor would seem too large as all the languages at the time demanded a larger footprint than what wasdesired. The team thus had to think in a different way to go about solving all these problems.Co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Bill Joy, envisioned a language combining the power of Mesa and C in a paper he wrote for the engineers at Sun named Further. Gathering ideas,Gosling began work on enhancing C++ and named it "C++ ++ --", a pun on the evolutionary structure of the language's name. The ++ and -- meant, putting in and taking out stuff.He soon abandoned the name and called it Oak[1] after the tree that stood outside his office.
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SCRATCH SOL PROGRAM SCRATCH

SCRATCH SOL PROGRAM SCRATCH

Programming with Scratch – 7 LessonsThis unit introduces students to basic programming and control technology concepts. It is taught through stand alone lessons which increase with difficulty and complexitythroughout the scheme. Through the series of lessons students will learn the skills required to create a basic game, which they will develop on their own at the end of theunit. This will be peer assessed in pairs.ObjectivesOutcomesLesson 1: DiscoLesson outlineTo understand whatScratch does and thebasics of the ScratchinterfaceTo be able to create ananimation by writing asimple script (program)that moves the spriteTo be able to changebackgrounds and swapcostumesAll students will beable to create achanging backgroundand animate a spriteMost will be able geta stick man sprite tochange costumes
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PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE

PRACTICAL ENGLISH USAGE

-ing form the form of a verb ending in -ing. Examples: finding; keeping;running. See also gerund, present participle.initial at the beginning. Sometimes is an adverb that can go in initial positionin a sentence. Example: Sometimes 1 wish I had a different job.intensifying making stronger, more emphatic. Very and terribly areintensifying adverbs.interrogative Interrogative structures and words are used for askingquestions. In an interrogative sentence, there is an auxiliary verb (or nonauxiliary be) before the subject (e.g. Can you swim?; Are you ready?).What, who and where are interrogative words.intonation the 'melody' of spoken language: the way the musical pitch of thevoice rises and falls to show meaning, sentence structure or mood.intransitive An intransitive verb is one that cannot have an object or be usedin the passive. Examples: smile; fall; come; go.inversion a structure in which an auxiliary or other verb comes before itssubject. Examples: Never had she seen such a mess; Here comes John.irregular not following the normal rules. or not having the usual form. Anirregular verb has a past tense and/or past participle that does not end in -ed(e.g. swam, taken); children is an irregular plural.link verb (or copular verb) be, seem, feel and other verbs which link a subjectto a complement that describes it. Examples: My mother is in Jersey; He seemsunhappy, This feels soft.main clause, subordinate clause Some sentences consist of a main clause andone or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause acts like a part of themain clause (e.g. like a subject, or an object, or an adverbial). Examples:Where she is doesn't matter (the subordinate clause Where she is is the subjectof the main clause); I told you that [didn't care (the subordinate clause that Ididn't care is the direct object in the main clause); You'll find friends whereveryou go (the subordinate clause wherever you go acts like an adverb in themain clause: compare You'll find friends anywhere).
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GRAMMAR TERMS BEGINNING WITH LETTERS D AND E

GRAMMAR TERMS BEGINNING WITH LETTERS D AND E

Grammar terms beginning with letters D and EDouble negativeA construction in which two or more negative words occur in a single clause.Examples are:I don’t have nothing to prove.I didn’t see nothing.Double negatives are common in colloquial English. Formerly they were also acceptable in standard English, butnow they are regarded as non-standard.Note that a double negative is not equivalent to a positive. For example ‘I don’t have nothing to prove’ doesn’tmean ‘I have something to prove’. It just happens to be a non-standard but understandable way of saying ‘Ihave nothing to prove’.EllipsisThe omission of word or words which is logically required to complete a sentence.ExamplesSeen James? (= Have you seen James?)Got a problem. (= I have got a problem.)Embedded questionA question which is not being asked directly. An embedded question merely forms part of a larger sentence,which may or may not be a question.I wondered why she was angry with me. (Here the sequence ‘why she was angry with me’ is an embeddedquestion.)I don’t know what I should do. (Embedded question – what I should do)Note that in an embedded question the subject comes before the verb.Ergative verbA verb which can be either intransitive or transitive. Examples are: sink, ring, boil, explode etc.The explosion sank the ship. (Here the ergative verb sank is used transitively because it has an object.)The ship sank suddenly. (Here the ergative verb sank is used intransitively because it does not have an object.)Stay on top of your writing! Download our grammar guide from www.englishgrammar.org to stay up-to-date.Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
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GRAMMAR TERMS SIMPLE SENTENCE SINGULAR SPLIT INFINITIVE

GRAMMAR TERMS SIMPLE SENTENCE SINGULAR SPLIT INFINITIVE

Grammar terms: simple sentence, singular, split infinitiveSimple sentenceA sentence which contains only one main clause. Examples are: She is coming; The king is dead; My brotherwants to buy a new car.SingularThe simplest form of an English noun. This is the form which is entered in a dictionary. Examples are: dog, tree,girl, flower etc. A countable noun has two forms: a singular form and a plural form. With an uncountable noun, thesingular is the only form that exists at all.Split infinitiveA particular English construction in which an adverb splits an infinitive and its marker to. Examples are:She decided to never call him again. Here the sequence to never call is an example of what is called a ‘splitinfinitive’.Those who use the term split infinitive believe that there is something wrong with separating the particle to from afollowing infinitive. They are of the opinion that to is itself part of the infinitive and they object to breaking up thesequence. But this view is quite wrong because the infinitive is a single word and the particle to is not part of theinfinitive at all.Stay on top of your writing! Download our grammar guide from www.englishgrammar.org to stay up-to-date.Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
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BASIC ITALIAN A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK READERS STUFFZ

BASIC ITALIAN A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK READERS STUFFZ

Introduction vii List of signs and abbreviations viii 1 Nouns: gender and number 1 2 Definite and indefinite articles 9 3 Adjectives; possessive and demonstrative pronouns 17 4 The present tense of essere and avere 28 5 The present tense of regular (and some irregular) verbs 36 6 Adverbs 46 7 Direct object pronouns (1) 52 8 Prepositions 57 9 Questions 68 10 Indirect object pronouns (1) 74 11 Piacere and similar verbs 79 12 The present perfect tense 84 13 Direct and indirect object pronouns (2) 94 14 Direct and indirect object pronouns (3: stressed forms) 99 15 Relative pronouns 104 16 The imperfect tense 111 17 The pronouns ne and ci 120 18 The future tense 129 19 The past perfect tense 137 20 Reflexive pronouns 143 21 The imperative 149 22 The pronoun si 157 23 The present conditional 162 Key to exercises 168 Glossary of technical terms 187 Index 191 If you are an Englishspeaking learner preparing GCSE, Scottish Standard Grade (credit level) or similar examination, or simply learning the language for everyday use, this grammar and workbook is for you. You will typically be either following a course at school, college or evening class, or teaching your self from a published course. This book is not itself a course, but a selfhelp referencerevision grammar, with exercises designed to reinforce your grasp of the points dealt with, unit by unit. You will find it a help to have access to a good Italian–English dictionary when working through the book. Since this is not a selfcontained course, the grammar points are usually given on their own, out of context. Of course, this is artificial, because, in everyday life, when we say or write something it is always in a situation or context. To compensate for this artificiality, the grammar points are illus trated with abundant examples, which are often reused, with variations, under different headings. This is partly to strengthen your grasp of grammar and vocabulary, but mostly to help you learn how to manipulate the Italian language in a wide range of situations. Giving plenty of examples is a more effective way of helping you develop the ability to communicate in Italian than giving you lists of rules with just one or two examples. At the end of each unit, there are several sets of exercises. If you work through these, you will find that they consolidate your understanding of the various points introduced in the unit, and also that they give you the con fidence to have a go at expressing yourself in a range of situations and contexts. The aim of the examples and exercises is to strengthen awareness of the specific points dealt with in the unit; they are not intended to cover all the possible uses of a given word or grammatical structure. At the end of the book, there is a key to all the exercises, and a glossary of grammatical terms, with examples. SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS f feminine fp feminine plural fs feminine singular lit. literally m masculine mp masculine plural ms masculine singular pl. plural sing. singular Square brackets indicate an explanatory comment attached to an example, e.g. C’è Luisa al telefono. That’s Luisa on the phone. i.e. she has just rung Quanto zucchero ms vuoi? How much sugar do you want? ‘Dov’è Anna?’ ‘No lo so.’ ‘Where’s Anna?’ ‘I don’t know.’ lit. I don’t know it Round brackets in an example show that the material in brackets is optional, e.g. ‘Hai i libri?’ ‘Sì, (ce) li ho.’ ‘Have you got the books?’ ‘Yes, I’ve got them.’ Ne ho mangiati due. I ate two (of them). A chi scrivete? Who(m) are you writing to? Round brackets round an entire sentence show that, while possible, this is a formal form that is not often used, e.g. ((Loro) Partono, Signori Bianco?) Are you leaving(, Mr and Mrs Bianco)? UNIT ONE Nouns: gender and number Gender: masculine and feminine 1 All Italian nouns are either masculine or feminine. The best way to remem ber the gender of a noun is to learn it along with its definite article (i.e. the word meaning ‘the’). In this unit, nouns will therefore be given along with their definite articles, but there will be no discussion of the articles as such. Definite and indefinite articles are the subject of Unit 2. Most nouns in the singular end in o, a, or e. 2 Italian nouns ending in o are usually masculine: 3 Italian nouns ending in a are usually feminine: 4 Italian nouns ending in e can be either masculine or feminine. Unless a noun ending in e denotes a person whose gender is defined (e.g. ‘husband’, ‘wife’), there are virtually no rules to determine its gender, which must there fore be learned by heart or checked in a dictionary: l’uomo m il fratello m il pomeriggio m il treno m man brother afternoon train la donna f la sorella f la sera f la bicicletta f woman sister evening bicycle
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