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room-temperature semiconductor gas sensor based on nonstoichiometric

ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAS SENSOR BASED ON NONSTOICHIOMETRIC

Room-temperature semiconductor gas sensor based on nonstoichiometrictungsten oxide nanorod filmYong Shin Kim,a͒Seung-Chul Ha, Kyuwon Kim,b͒Haesik Yang,c͒Sung-Yool Choi, and Youn Tae KimElectronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of KoreaJoon T. ParkDepartment of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Scienceand Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of KoreaChang Hoon Lee, Jiyoung Choi, Jungsun Paek, and Kwangyeol Leea͒Department of Chemistry and Center for Electro- and Photo-Responsive Molecules, Korea University,Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea͑Received 16 August 2004; accepted 5 April 2005; published online 19 May 2005͒Porous tungsten oxide films were deposited onto a sensor substrate with a Si bulk-micromachinedhotplate, by drop-coating isopropyl alcohol solution of highly crystalline tungsten oxide ͑WO2.72͒nanorods with average 75 nm length and 4 nm diameter. The temperature-dependent gas sensingcharacteristics of the films have been investigated over the mild temperature range from20 to 250 °C. While the sensing responses for ammonia vapor showed increase in electricalconductivity at temperatures above 150 °C as expected for n-type metal oxide sensors, theyexhibited the opposite behavior of unusual conductivity decrease below 100 °C. Superb sensingability of the sensors at room temperature in conjunction with their anomalous conductivitybehavior might be attributed to unique nanostructural features of very thin, nonstoichiometricWO2.72
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BÀI TẬP TRẮC NGHIỆM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 UNIT 4: AT SCHOOL

BÀI TẬP TRẮC NGHIỆM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 UNIT 4: AT SCHOOL

3………………………………………………………………….4………………………………………………………………..…5………………………………………………………………….6…………………………………………………………………7…………………………………………………………………8………………………………………………………………….VI-Fill in the gap with nouns of subjects:PhysicsHistoryBiologyArtGeographyComputer scienceElectronicsLiterature1-In …………………..we study different countries and people.2-In……………… we learn about books, poems and write essays3-In ………………………….we learn how to use a computer.VnDoc - Tải tài liệu, văn bản pháp luật, biểu mẫu miễn phí4-In ……………....we study many thing and do some experiments5-In …………………we study past and present events in Vietnam and in the world.6-In ………………....we learn how to repair household appliances
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Mạch Logic Tổ Hợp cơ bản

MẠCH LOGIC TỔ HỢP CƠ BẢN

9/16/13 1 Các mạch logic tổ hợp cơ bản (Modular Combinational Logic Circuits) Dr. Le Dung School of Electronics and Telecommunications Hanoi University of Science and Technology Hanoi 5/2011 NỘI DUNG I. Bộ giải mã (Decoder) 1. Binary Decoder 2. BCD to Decimal Decoder 3. BCD to 7-segment Decoder II. Bộ lập mã (Encoder) 1. Binary Encoder 2. Binary Priority Encoder 3. Decimal to BCD Priority Encoder III. Bộ dồn kênh – Bộ phân kênh (Multiplexer & Demultiplexer) 1. MUX và DEMUX 2. 1 of 8 MUX và 1 to 16 MUX 3. Dual four-input MUX và Quad two-input MUX 4. Ứng dụng của MUX 5. DEMUX được thực hiện từ Decoder IV. Bộ cộng – Bộ trừ - Bộ so sánh – Đơn vị số học và logic 1. Binary Adder 2. BCD Adder 3. Subtractor 4. Comparator 5. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Dr. Le Dung - School of Electronics and Telecommunications Page 2 / 60
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Chapter1 imageprocessingbasic

CHAPTER1 IMAGEPROCESSINGBASIC

1/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunicationsChapter1.ImageProcessingBasicsDigitalImagePro cessing2/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications3/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications4/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications5/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications6/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications7/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications8/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications9/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications10/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications11/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications12/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications13/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications14/15HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications
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Giáo án Anh văn lớp 6 - Period 28 - Unit 5 - Lesson 3 55 pps

GIÁO ÁN ANH VĂN LỚP 6 - PERIOD 28 - UNIT 5 - LESSON 3 55 PPS

Period 28 Unit 5 WORK AND PLAY Lesson 3 - A 4-6 P.54-55  Aim: School subject vocabulary with listening and Reading practice.  Objectives: By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to say what they will learn and do in each subject at school.  Teaching aid: Tape, poster, pictures. 1.Warm up: Matching. Ss match the picture (A4 P.54) and the subjects: Computer Science, Physical education, Geography, Electronics, Class activity. 2.Presentation A4 P.54 Pre-listening: Set the scence: Ba and Hoa are talking about their subjects they have on Saturday morning. Before listening to the tape predict them. Pre diction: Ss write the name (Ba / Hoa) next to the picture. Ba Hoa Hoa Ba Ba + Hoa While listening: T. asks: “What are the pictures about ? -What school subjects do you like ? -Can you guess what subjects Ba+Hoa do on Saturday morning?” -You listen to the tape and choose the subject Ba + Hoa
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Chapter2 image transform

CHAPTER2 IMAGE TRANSFORM

11/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunicationsChapter2.ImageTransformsDigitalImagePro cessing2/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications3/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications4/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications5/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications6/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications7/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications8/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications9/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications10/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications11/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications12/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications13/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications14/23HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications
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Chapter4 image restoration

CHAPTER4 IMAGE RESTORATION

11/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunicationsChapter4.ImageRestorationDigitalImagePro cessing2/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications3/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications4/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications5/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications6/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications7/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications8/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications9/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications10/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications11/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications12/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications13/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications14/30HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications
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Chapter6 image segmentation

CHAPTER6 IMAGE SEGMENTATION

11/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunicationsChapter6.ImageSegmentationDigitalImagePro cessing2/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications3/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications4/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications5/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications6/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications7/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications8/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications9/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications10/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications11/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications12/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications13/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications14/34HanoiUniversityofScienceandTechnology SchoolofElectronicsandTelecommunications
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Báo cáo y học: "Correction: Biofabrication of anisotropic gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic Aspergillus clavatus as a dual functional reductant and stabilizer" potx

BÁO CÁO Y HỌC: "CORRECTION: BIOFABRICATION OF ANISOTROPIC GOLD NANOTRIANGLES USING EXTRACT OF ENDOPHYTIC ASPERGILLUS CLAVATUS AS A DUAL FUNCTIONAL REDUCTANT AND STABILIZER" POTX

Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Anatomy,Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu Univers ity,India, for the TEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles.Author details1Centre of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.2Mycopathology andMicrobial Technology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India.3School of Material Scienceand Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.4National Facility for Tribal and Herbal Medicine, Institute ofMedical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.Received: 28 March 2011 Accepted: 28 March 2011Published: 28 March 2011Reference1. Verma VC, Singh SK, Solanki R, Prakash S: Biofabrication of anisotropicgold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic Aspergillus clavatus as adual functional reductant and stabilizer. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6:16.doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-261Cite this article as: Verma et al.: Correction: Biofabrication of anisotropicgold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic Aspergillus clavatus as adual functional reductant and stabilizer. Nanoscale Research Letters 20116:261.Submit your manuscript to a
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Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems_Lecture 06: Circuit characterization and performance estimation ppt

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VLSI SYSTEMS_LECTURE 06: CIRCUIT CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE ESTIMATION PPT

Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems Lecture 06 Thuan Nguyen Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of Science, VNU HCMUS Spring 2011 1 INTRODUCTION  The delay of a logic gate: C: load capacitance t ∝ 𝐶𝐼∆𝑉 I: output current ∆𝑉: output voltage swing 2  nMOS provides more current than pMOS for the same size and capacitance  Static CMOS requires both nMOS and pMOS on each input.  All the node voltages in static CMOS must transition between 0 and VDD  propagation delay + power consumption.  Circuit families LECTURE 06: CIRCUIT CHARACTERIZATION & PERFORMANCE ESTIMATION Static CMOS
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Nghiên cứu khoa học nông nghiệp " Sustainable and profitable development of acacia plantations for sawlog production in Vietnam - MS2 " potx

NGHIÊN CỨU KHOA HỌC NÔNG NGHIỆP " SUSTAINABLE AND PROFITABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ACACIA PLANTATIONS FOR SAWLOG PRODUCTION IN VIETNAM - MS2 " POTX

1. Institute Information Project Name Sustainable and profitable development of acacia plantations for sawlog production in Vietnam Vietnamese Institution Forest Science Institute of Vietnam Vietnamese Project Team Leader Dr Ha Huy Thinh Australian Organisation Ensis Australian Personnel Dr Chris Harwood, Dr Sadanandan Nambiar, Dr Chris Beadle, Mr Khongsak Pinyopusarerk Date commenced 1/03/2006 Completion date (original) 31/12/2008 Completion date (revised) Reporting period 1/03/2006 – 1/09/2006 Contact Officer(s) In Australia: Team Leader Name: Dr Chris Harwood Telephone:
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CV format thông tin cơ bản

CV FORMAT THÔNG TIN CƠ BẢN

Curriculum Vitae Format Your Contact Information Name Address Telephone Cell Phone Email Personal Information Date of Birth Place of Birth Citizenship Visa Status Gender Optional Personal Information Marital Status Spouses Name Children Employment History List in chronological order, include position details and dates Work History Academic Positions Research and Training Education Include dates, majors, and details of degrees, training and certification High School University Graduate School PostDoctoral Training Professional Qualifications Certifications and Accreditations Computer Skills Awards Publications Books
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room-temperature semiconductor gas sensor based on nonstoichiometric tungsten oxide nanorod film

ROOMTEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAS SENSOR BASED ON NONSTOICHIOMETRICTUNGSTEN OXIDE NANOROD FILM

Room-temperature semiconductor gas sensor based on nonstoichiometrictungsten oxide nanorod filmYong Shin Kim,a͒Seung-Chul Ha, Kyuwon Kim,b͒Haesik Yang,c͒Sung-Yool Choi, and Youn Tae KimElectronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of KoreaJoon T. ParkDepartment of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Scienceand Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of KoreaChang Hoon Lee, Jiyoung Choi, Jungsun Paek, and Kwangyeol Leea͒Department of Chemistry and Center for Electro- and Photo-Responsive Molecules, Korea University,Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea͑Received 16 August 2004; accepted 5 April 2005; published online 19 May 2005͒Porous tungsten oxide films were deposited onto a sensor substrate with a Si bulk-micromachinedhotplate, by drop-coating isopropyl alcohol solution of highly crystalline tungsten oxide ͑WO2.72͒nanorods with average 75 nm length and 4 nm diameter. The temperature-dependent gas sensingcharacteristics of the films have been investigated over the mild temperature range from20 to 250 °C. While the sensing responses for ammonia vapor showed increase in electricalconductivity at temperatures above 150 °C as expected for n-type metal oxide sensors, theyexhibited the opposite behavior of unusual conductivity decrease below 100 °C. Superb sensingability of the sensors at room temperature in conjunction with their anomalous conductivitybehavior might be attributed to unique nanostructural features of very thin, nonstoichiometricWO2.72
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Đồ hoạ máy tính-Chương 1 docx

ĐỒ HOẠ MÁY TÍNH-CHƯƠNG 1 DOCX

– Kiểu đường (liền nét, đứt nét)– Cách nối hai cạnh dày Thiết lập thuộc tính: setDash (dash7) hoặc setLineThickness(thickness).Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.Slide 12Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering - HCMUTVĂN BẢN Một số thiết bị có hai chế độ hiển thị– Chế độ hiển thị văn bản– Chế độ hiển thị đồ họa Thủ tục hiển thị chuỗi– drawString(x, y, string); Thuộc tính– Font– Màu sắc– Kích thước– Hướng– Khoảng cách giữa các ký tự trong chuỗiGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.Slide 13Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering - HCMUTVĂN BẢNGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.Slide 14Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering - HCMUTVÙNG TÔ Hình được tô bởi màu hoặc mẫu tô. Đường biên thườnglà hình đa giác. Thủ tục : fillPolygon(poly, pattern);
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Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Part 2 pdf

FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PART 2 PDF

This algorithm removes the second element in the sourceStack. The order of the remaing elements must be preserved after the removal. Pre None Post the sourceStack being removed its second element Return None end RemoveSecond s1{rong} s2{1,9,4,2}s1{7,10}s1{2,4,9,1,7,10}s2{rong}s1{9,1,7,10}s2{4,2}pop(SourceStack,x)pop(SourceStack,y)Push(SourceStack,x) Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Page 4/10 Part 3. Queue Suppose that the following algorithms are implemented: - EnQueue (ref q <Queue>, val n <data>): push the value n to the queue queue - DeQueue(ref q <Queue>, ref x <data>): remove the top element of the queue q and assign the data of that top element to x - EmptyQueue(val q <Queue>): check whether the queue q is empty
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Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Part 1 potx

FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PART 1 POTX

Write a recurrence equation for the running time T(n) of g(n), and solve that recurrence. Algorithm g (val n <integer>) Pre n must be greater than 0 Return integer value of g corresponding to n 1 if (n = 1) 1 return 1 2 else 1 return g(n – 1)+ 1 End g n^3*log2(n)40*2^1024*10^-9Un= U +1U = 1O(n)n-11 Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Released on 24/08/2012 20:06:39 3/4 Advanced Questions Question 8. Prove that for any positive functions f and g, f(n) + g(n) and max(f(n), g(n)) are asymptotically
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Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science - LAB SESSION 3 RECURSION pot

FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE - LAB SESSION 3 RECURSION POT

Tree::getSize () { return getSizeFrom(root); } int Tree::getSizeFrom(Node *pNode) { int nResult; //stop condition: what we should do for the simplest case – an empty string if (pNode = NULL) nResult = 0; //recursive case: assume that we can count the size of left and right sub-trees // what should we do to get the final result? else nResult = getSizeFrom(pNode->left) + getSizeFrom(pNode->right) + 1; return nResult; } Listing 3 Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science 3/3 Listing 3 gives a scenario in which we try to develop a method getSize() to count the number of nodes of the tree. To fulfill this job, we implement another auxiliary method called getSizeFrom, which counts the number of nodes of a sub-tree whose root is a certain node. As you can see, getSizeFrom will be implemented in a recursive manner. 4. EXERCISES Consider the files main.cpp, Tree.h and TreeSample.cpp attached. Use this initial code to
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Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science Part 1 doc

FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PART 1 DOC

There are 3 nested loops, the iteration of variable i is executed n times, j is executed n-1 times, k is executed log2(n)+1 times. Therefore, the run-time efficiency is n(n-1)(log2(n)+1)(2n) = O(n3log2(n)). Question 6. Given that the efficiency of an algorithm is 2nlog2(n4), if a step in this algorithm takes 1 nanosecond (10−9), how long does it take the algorithm to process an input of size 1024? Solution: It takes: 21024log2(1024)×10-9

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Báo cáo hóa học: " Size-dependent catalytic and melting properties of platinum-palladium nanoparticles" doc

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " SIZE-DEPENDENT CATALYTIC AND MELTING PROPERTIES OF PLATINUM-PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES" DOC

studied with Monte Carlo simulations and the modified embeddedatom method. Surface Science 2008, 602:2491-2495.32. Guisbiers G, Buchaillot L: Size and shape effects on creep and diffusion atthe nanoscale. Nanotechnology 2008, 19:435701.33. Vayenas CG, Bebelis S, Pliangos C, Brosda S, Tsiplakides D: Electrochemicalactivation of catalysis New York: Kluwer Academic; 2001.34. Kemball C: Catalysis on evaporated metal films. I. The efficiency ofdifferent metals for the reaction between ammonia and deuterium.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical andPhysical Sciences 1952, 214:413-426.35. Vayenas CG, Ladas S, Bebelis S, Yentekakis IV, Neophytides S, Yi J,Karavasilis C, Pliangos C: Electrochemical promotion in catalysis: non-faradaic electrochemical modification of catalytic activity. ElectrochimicaActa 1994, 39:1849-1855.36. Lu HM, Meng XK: Theoretical model to calculate catalytic activationenergies of platinum nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. Journalof Physical Chemistry C 2010, 114:1534-1538.37. Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA: Shape-dependent catalytic activity of platinumnanoparticles in colloidal solution. Nano Letters 2004, 4:1343.38. Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA: Catalysis with transition metal nanoparticles incolloidal solution: nanoparticle shape dependence and stability. Journalof Physical Chemistry B 2005, 109:12663-12676.39. Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA: Some aspects of colloidal nanoparticlestability, catalytic activity, and recycling potential. Topics in Catalysis 2008,47:15-21.40. Martienssen W, Warlimont H: Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter andMaterials Data Berlin: Springer; 2005.41. Arblaster JW: Vapour pressure equations for the platinum groupelements. Platinum Metals Review 2007, 51:130-135.doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-396
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Natural Computing Series pdf

NATURAL COMPUTING SERIES PDF

as light dots, unlabeled positions appear gray, and the mica surface on whichthe sample is deposited appears black. Each letter is approximately 60 nmScaffolded DNA Origami 9tall (letters half this height are shown in [11]). Roughly 50 billion copies ofthe pattern were made; copies stick to each other along their vertical edgesvia blunt-end stacking. Note that the pattern clearly shows the influence ofNed on DNA nanotechnology.Because scaffolded DNA origami makes the creation of arbitrary shapesand patterns so simple, and because it provides the ability to pattern at the6 nm length scale, scaffolded origami has the potential to play an importantrole in future lithographic techniques for nanocircuits and other nanodevices.2 DNA Origami for Polygonal NetworksGiven the ease with which scaffolded origami generalizes parallel crossovers,the question becomes, “what other general methods of creating shapes mightthere be?” The first thing that would probably spring to a geometer’s mind isthe use of polygons. Indeed an attempt to create polygonal networks – DNAstick figures – was where Ned began his quest for 3D structure [14, 15]. Hisoriginal vision was to “trash the symmetry” of DNA branch junctions to cre-ate immobile motifs, which could then be assembled into polygonal networksvia sticky ends (Fig. 5a,b). Unfortunately, it wasn’t that easy; single-branchedjunctions resisted crystallization into 2D lattices for many years. In general,branched junctions formed from single helices are floppy and tend to cyclizeinto families of trimers, tetramers, and higher macrocycles. In particular, four-armed branch junctions vacillate between one of two different “stacked-X”conformations [9, 3] and, demonstrating a mind of their own, assume a 60◦angle rather than the 90◦angle one might like them to. Again, by trashingsymmetries, one can use specific sticky ends that force a particular connec-
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