THE US FINANCIAL ECONOMY IN 2008

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "THE US FINANCIAL ECONOMY IN 2008":

KHỦNG HOẢNG CHÂU Á 1997 VÀ KHỦNG HOẢNG THẾ GIỚI 2008

KHỦNG HOẢNG CHÂU Á 1997 VÀ KHỦNG HOẢNG THẾ GIỚI 2008

Đây là bài luận giữa kì nói về cuộc khủng hoảng châu Á 1997 và khủng hoảng Thế giới 2008. Bài làm toàn bộ đều được thực hiện bằng tiếng Anh.
INTRODUCTION
The world is slowly turning the pages of a new book, but the suffering, damage from the crisis aftershocks are still remaining on every street where people live.Stepping up the damage caused by the crisis, the world economy is ever growing but it still not escape the cycle of crisis rule . Sterling Crisis of 1992, the 1994 Mexican peso crisis, the Asian monetary crisis in 1997, 1998 Russia financial crisis, 19992002 Argentina crisis, the global financial crisis 2008 ... are typical crisis. But which have the widest impact and cause the most damage are probably the Asian monetary crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis of 2008.
So what is the cause of the crisis? Their movements like? What is the consequence? And what experience has Vietnam learned through two crises?
It is also content of this essay. Lack of experience, English proficiency is not fluent those probably create some gaps in my essay. I hope that my imperfections will be filled with your comments, evaluation… so that I can complete graduating essay better than in the near future.....
Sincerely thank
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Business Cycles in the Eastern Caribbean Economies The Role of Fiscal Policy and Interest Rates

BUSINESS CYCLES IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN ECONOMIES THE ROLE OF FISCAL POLICY AND INTEREST RATES

This paper analyzes the business cycle characteristics of
the economies of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean
States using a model of a small open economy subject to
interest rate and fiscal expenditure shocks and financial
frictions. The paper shows that macroeconomic aggregates
in this region are quite volatile, with consumption
exhibiting higher volatility than gross domestic product.
The analysis also finds that in these economies real interest
rates are highly volatile and strongly countercyclical
with gross domestic product and other macroeconomic
aggregates. Similarly, fiscal expenditures show significant
volatility, but are procyclical with gross domestic product.
The results suggest two major directions for designing
policies to help reduce the volatility experienced by the
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States economies. First,
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FINANCIAL TERMS

FINANCIAL TERMS

Dividend payout ratio - It is the ratio of dividend paid per share and EPS ( Earning per share )Double entry bookkeeping - It is a method of bookkeeping in which every transaction isrecorded two accounts. Once in debit side and once in credit side.amEnkExEarning per share - Earnings made by a company in a financial year divided by number ofissued shares.Equity - Value of a business. Equity = Total assets - Total liabilitiesBaEx-divided - Ex-dividend means without dividend. When a seller makes a ex-dividend salescontract then he is entitled to get dividend or interest payment.www.EBIT - Earning before interest and taxesEBT - Earning before taxEAT - Earning after taxFFace value - The amount mentioned on face of a bond certificate.
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EVALUATION OF CONSUMER LENDING ACTIVITIES AT VIETNAM BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

EVALUATION OF CONSUMER LENDING ACTIVITIES AT VIETNAM BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Nowadays, banking is one of the most important financial channels for the economy. Improving and expanding banking activities are the orientation and guideline for banks to survive and grow in the increasingly fierce competition. Among that, credit activity is a vital field in the bank and decides most of other activities in the national economy. It is also a main source of creating profitability and decides the existence and development of the bank. For a long time, most banks only focused on lending the production business but not much paid attention to the final stage of producing – consuming. Actually, when society increasingly grows, not only the enterprises need capital to make business and expand the current market but the individual need more capital than ever before as well. People’s living standards are more and more improving, not only in need of basic necessities like food, clothes but also tons of needs both in mental and physical life.
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Bankruptcy Around the World: Explanations of its Relative Use

BANKRUPTCY AROUND THE WORLD: EXPLANATIONS OF ITS RELATIVE USE

The recent literature on law and finance has drawn attention to the importance of creditor
rights in influencing the development of financial systems and in affecting firm corporate
governance and financing patterns. Recent financial crises have also highlighted the
importance of insolvency systems – a key element of creditor rights – to prevent and
resolve corporate sector financial distress. The literature and crises have highlighted the
role that creditor rights play in not only affecting the efficiency of expost resolution of
distressed corporations, but also in influencing exante risktaking incentives and an
economy’s degree of entrepreneurship more generally. Yet, little is known on how much
formal insolvency systems are actually being used, how the use of the courts to resolve
financial distress relates to creditor rights, and whether any specific creditor rights matter
more. This paper starts with documenting how often bankruptcy is used in a panel of 35
countries. It next investigates the relation between specific design features of insolvency
regimes, considering also the relation of the quality of countries’ overall judicial systems
with the use of bankruptcy. We find, controlling for overall (financial) development and
macroeconomic shocks, that bankruptcies are higher in commonlaw countries and in
marketoriented financial systems. We also find that greater judicial efficiency is
associated with more use of bankruptcy, but that the combination of stronger creditor
rights and greater judicial efficiency is associated with less use. Interestingly, we find
that the presence of no automatic stay on assets, which allows creditors to seize assets
during bankruptcy reorganization, is associated with fewer use of bankruptcy,
independently of the efficiency of the judicial system. These findings suggest that the
relationship between specific creditor rights features and the use of bankruptcy systems is
more complex than perhaps thought. These results may be important to help clarify the
interdependent causal factors behind the relationship between creditor rig
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THE OCEANS ECONOMY OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

THE OCEANS ECONOMY OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES

Issues of relevance to Small Island Developing States (SIDS)t The concept of the oceans economy, also referred to as the blue economy, is one that simultaneouslypromotes economic growth, environmental sustainability, social inclusion and the strengthening of oceansecosystems.t The oceans economy is subject to a multilayer regulatory framework under the United Nations Conventionon the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other national, regional and multilateral as well as sectoral governance regimes.t The oceans economy can contribute to addressing some of the concerns associated with economic andenvironmental vulnerability, including those associated with remoteness, by fostering international andregional cooperation under an ‘ocean space approach’, which is also expressed in the literature as marinespatial planning.t An ocean space approach requires the development of a more coherent, integrated and structured framework that takes account of the economic potential of all marine natural resources, which include seawaysand energy sources from the oceans.t The oceans economy offers significant development opportunities and also raises challenges for SIDS insectors such as sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, renewable marine energy, marine bioprospecting,maritime transport and marine and coastal tourism.t Fisheries represent a significant part of the economic output of many SIDS. As the demand for fishproducts continues to grow, SIDS need to explore options directed at securing economic benefits whileensuring sustainable management of these resources.t SIDS could explore ways to mainstream the generation of renewable energy into their national and regional planning and energy mix. The potential exists to increase offshore windgenerated electricity andthe use of algae biomass in the production of fuel.t Bioprospecting of marine genetic resources offers interesting opportunities for benefitsharing and creation of scientific capacities in SIDS, especially in relation to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food products development.t Current incentives for ship registration could be better leveraged by linking them to financial and ship classification services. Moreover, developing sustainable and resilient regional maritime or multimodal hubsand enabling the provision of incidental services (such as portrelated storage, insurance and financialservices), as well as sustainable and reliable transport services, can assist in addressing the challengesfaced by SIDS regarding maritime transport and improving trade connectivity.t Tourism can also be mainstreamed into national and regional planning. Facilitating travel routes and theoperation of service providers in transport, information and communications technologies (ICTs) and financial services could strengthen SIDS’ appeal to both investors and travellers. Links with maritime andair transport, such as open seas and skies agreements, could be further explored.
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TRADE REFORM IN VIETNAM: OPPORTUNITIES WITH EMERGING CHALLENGES1

TRADE REFORM IN VIETNAM: OPPORTUNITIES WITH EMERGING CHALLENGES1

In 1986, the Government of Vietnam initiated a transition from the existing centrally planned
economy to a marketoriented economy where the Government would keep playing a leading
role. These renovation (doi moi) policies were very successful at generating economic
growth and reducing poverty. In the TenYear SocioEconomic Strategy endorsed by the
Ninth Party Congress in April 2001, the authorities further articulated their development
objectives in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction. To reach these objectives, the
Government indicated that its structural reform priorities were to change Vietnam’s trade and
financial policies, liberalize the climate for private investment, increase the efficiency of
public enterprises, and improve governance.
This paper argues that the pace of implementation of trade reformwhich has been
impressive so faris raising new challenges. On one side, fast liberalization of trade reform
may soon conflict with the slow pace of implementation of other reforms including
restructuring of StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs) and StateOwned Commercial Banks
(SOCBs). On the other side, Vietnam would greatly benefit from fast implementation of
trade reform and particularly fast accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO);
especially after China’s recent WTO accession. This paper concludes that implementation of
trade reform will be a testing ground to reveal the extent of Vietnam’s commitment to a
marketoriented economy.
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IMPROVE THE BUSINESS EFFICIENCY OF VIETNAM AGRIBANK GOLD JOINT STOCK COMPANY HA DONG BRANCH = NÂNG CAO HIỆU QUẢ KINH DOANH CỦA CÔNG TY CỔ PHẦN VÀNG AGRIBANK VIỆT NAM CHI NHÁNH HÀ ĐÔNG

IMPROVE THE BUSINESS EFFICIENCY OF VIETNAM AGRIBANK GOLD JOINT STOCK COMPANY HA DONG BRANCH = NÂNG CAO HIỆU QUẢ KINH DOANH CỦA CÔNG TY CỔ PHẦN VÀNG AGRIBANK VIỆT NAM CHI NHÁNH HÀ ĐÔNG

In recent years, the economic crisis in Vietnam has crept into every industry. Real estate bubble, bad debts, gold speculation, and unemployment are the frequently mentioned through the mass media, the scientific research or more in the daily life of every citizen of Vietnam. It no longer lies in the economic forecast, which is taking place within the economy of Vietnam. The economic crisis affected directly or indirectly to the life, work of the people, to the production and business activities of economic organizations in Vietnam. The state agency also gave a lot of new laws which have policies to stabilize the economy and put out of this crisis. However, it takes time to verify the effectiveness of the policy. Right now, the market competition is fiercer than it ever. Competition for survival and competition for development are now moving toward Vietnam. In order to do that, businesses need to have the right business strategy and strong management capability. Buying and selling good of the company will affect to the development in the current business, especially commercial enterprises.
Gold is the concerned investment channel today in Vietnam and all over the world. However, like securities, gold investment sector also requires investors to equip themselves with the necessary knowledge that prevent their investment to be risky like gamble. In fact, investors are concerned about gold, but only a few people understand the profound role of world financial markets. Being considered as an asset that has a "safe haven", gold may increase in value even when the stock market declines, and when the economy is in recession. Global gold price is affected by a variety of factors, including the political environment and the economy, such as the effects of the debt crisis in Greece, the increase in gold reserves to diversify foreign exchange reserves of Central banks many countries. Especially the big emerging economies like China, Russia, India, Brazil, or the speculation of financial institutions have pushed the gold price fluctuates constantly, and have created a new record of gold price. For the last 5 years, the gold market Vietnam has made great strides and increased the volatility in step with the world market. Along with the decline of the stock market and the "freezing" on the real estate market, gold investment is one of the attractive sectors that can be considered as the potential businesses. However, we have to admit a truth that gold business is always risky channel, and it is difficult to forecast accurately.
During seven weeks of internship in AJC Ha Dong branch, by my experimental working time, I have understood this branch in both organizational structure and its business activities. Simultaneously, I have a chance to look through this branch’s collected data from various sources, especially its financial statement and statement of profit or loss.
Business performance of an enterprise in general and business performance of gold in particular of AJC HaDong often depends on many subjective and objective factors, such as management practices, investment strategy to develop production, product innovation, market expansion, human resource planning, the macroeconomic policies of the concerned agencies. Therefore, constantly improving production efficiency business is a leading concern of the leadership and the entire staff of AJC HaDong. That is also the overarching and expressed issue that can illustrate the quality and efficiency of economic management of the corporation. All these improvements in content innovation methods and measures applied in management only really makes sense if they increase business efficiency. Business performance is not only as a measure of quality, reflecting the level of organization, business management, but also as a matter of survival of the AJC HaDong in the current period. As Vietnam''s economy is integrating the world economy will open up many opportunities and many challenges, especially in the field of business risk potential gold and hard to predict correctly. Therefore, I choose the topic: “Improve the business efficiency of Vietnam Agribank Gold Joint Stock Company Ha Dong Branch” to be my bachelor’s thesis in finance.
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knowledge and power the information the george gilder

KNOWLEDGE AND POWER THE INFORMATION THE GEORGE GILDER

Ronald Reagan’s mostquoted living author—George Gilder—is back with an allnew paradigmshifting theory of capitalism that will upturn conventional wisdom, just when our economy desperately needs a new direction.

America’s struggling economy needs a better philosophy than the college students lament: I cant be out of money, I still have checks in my checkbook We’ve tried a government spending spree, and we’ve learned it doesn’t work. Now is the time to rededicate our country to the pursuit of free market capitalism, before we’re buried under a mound of debt and unfunded entitlements. But how do we navigate between government spending thats too big to sustain and financial institutions that are too big to fail? In Knowledge and Power, George Gilder proposes a bold new theory on how capitalism produces wealth and how our economy can regain its vitality and its growth.
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the demographic cliff harry s dent jr

THE DEMOGRAPHIC CLIFF HARRY S DENT JR

Bestselling author and financial guru Harry Dent shows why we’re facing a “great deflation” after five years of desperate stimulus—and what to do about it now Throughout his long career as an economic forecaster, Harry Dent has relied on a notsosecret weapon: demographics. Studying the predictable things people do as they age is the ultimate tool for understanding trends. For instance, Dent can tell a client exactly when people will spend the most on potato chips. And he can explain why our economy has risen and fallen with the peak spending of generations, and why we now face a growing demographic cliff with the accelerating retirement of the Baby Boomers around the world. Dent predicted the impact of the Boomers hitting their highest growth in spending in the 1990s, when most economists saw the United States declining. And he anticipated the decline of Japan in the 1990s, when economists were proclaiming it would overtake the U.S. economy. But now, Dent argues, the fundamental demographics have turned against the United States and will hit more countries ahead. Inflation rises when a larger than usual block of younger people enter the workforce, and it wanes when large numbers of older people retire, downsize their homes, and cut their spending. The mass retirement of the Boomers won’t just hold back inflation; it and massive debt deleveraging will actually cause deflation—weakening the economy the most from 2014 into 2019. Dent explores the implications of his controversial predictions. He offers advice on retirement planning, health care, real estate, education, investing, and business strategies. For instance... Businesses should get lean and mean now. Identify segments that you can clearly dominate and sell off or shut down others. If you don’t, the economy will do it for you, more painfully and less profitably. Investors should sell stocks by midJanuary 2014 and look to buy them back in 2015 or later at a Dow as low as 5,800. Families should wait to buy real estate in areas where home prices have gone back to where the bubble started in early 2000. Governments need to stop the endless stimulus that creates more bubbles and kills the middle class, and should assist in restructuring the unprecedented debt bubble of 1983–2008. Dent shows that if you take the time to understand demographic data, using it to your advantage isn’t all that difficult. By following his suggestions, listeners will be able to find the upside to the downturn and learn how to survive and prosper during the most challenging years ahead.
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Markets and politics, revealing state business relation through financial market information

MARKETS AND POLITICS, REVEALING STATE BUSINESS RELATION THROUGH FINANCIAL MARKET INFORMATION

... Markets and Politics: Revealing State- Business Relation through Financial Market Information by Wee-Keng Lee, B.A (Honors), M.B.A., M.S... system characterized by active state intervention in the economy and close state- business relations in Southeast Asian countries 1.1 STATE- BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A great... Conditions and Political Process 62 3.3 Stock Markets and Political Events 65 3.4 Using Stock Price Data to Measure Regulatory Changes 69 viii 3.5 Business -State Relations And Economic

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26554 PASSIVE VOICE SPEAKING LESSON

26554 PASSIVE VOICE SPEAKING LESSON

I4 VIDEO ACTIVITYPART I - SPEAKINGI.Discuss in pairs. Do you think the sentences below are true for oursociety? Why or why not? Can you think of examples to illustrate it ? Are they true for you?Why or why not? Can you think of examples?a. When we buy a product, we don’t think about the process that brought it to us.b. We have more stuff, but less time to do the things that really makes us happy.c. In our society, the primary way our value is measured is by how much we can buy.d. TV commercials make us feel like we need to buy more things.PART II – VOCABULARYII.Number the steps in the order they happen in the materials economy system.a. ( ) Distributionb. ( ) Productionc. ( ) Extractiond. ( ) Consumptione. ( ) DisposalIII.Now, write the right name for each stage described below.a.__________________ A fancy word for natural resource exploitation: chopping downtrees, blowing up mountains to get metals, using up the water, etc.b. __________________ We use energy to mix toxic chemical in with the natural resourcesto make toxic contaminated products.c. ___________________ Selling all the toxic contaminated junk as quickly as possible.d. ___________________ The heart of the system, the engine that drives it. Having people
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the economic growth of korea after 1990 identifying contributing factors from demand and supply sides

THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF KOREA AFTER 1990 IDENTIFYING CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FROM DEMAND AND SUPPLY SIDES

The Purpose of This Study is
To understand the Growth of Korean Economy since
1990
•Based on two linear stochastic models, which
contrast the institutional changes Korea went
through after the Financial Crisis
•To measure the relative contributions of various
shocks to the growth path of Korea
•Demand, supply (productivity), oil shocks,…

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Singapore, the next RMB offshore financial center

SINGAPORE, THE NEXT RMB OFFSHORE FINANCIAL CENTER

... in the RMB cross-border transaction and in the RMB offshore financial market,I begin with explaining the RMB cross-border clearing system and then analyze the RMB offshore financial market in Singapore,. .. of offshore financial centers (OFCs) Before analyzing the strengths of Singapore to become the RMB offshore financial center, it is important to know the definition and types of offshore financial. .. establish the RMB offshore financial center in Singapore will promote the usage of RMB as international settlement currency, and then accelerate the RMB internationalization process Through the relevant
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Case Study: Vietnam Sector Background

CASE STUDY: VIETNAM SECTOR BACKGROUND

Vietnam has seen major economic growth over the past three decades, and
significant progress in reducing poverty. It is a densely populated country that, in
the past 30 years, has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial
support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally planned economy.
The seeds of this expansion were planted more than two decades ago, with
the 1986 launch of the renovation process known as Doi Moi.
1 Vietnam has since
witnessed a rapid transition to a globalized, marketbased economy.
The progress is reflected in the growth of electricity use and the electrification
rate. In 1976, the first year after unification, just 2.5 percent of rural households
had access to electricity; per capita electricity consumption was 45 kilowatthours
(kWh)year, and aggregate consumption was 2,300 gigawatthours (GWh).
This rose to just 65 kWhcapita in 1985, before the start of Doi Moi. But since
1986, average growth has been a dramatic 9 percent: by 2009 consumption
reached 72 terawatthours (TWh) and by 2012, 105 TWh—an increase of
11.25 percent over 2011 (Gencer and others 2011). Per capita annual consumption
has grown from less than 50kWhcapita in 1976 to over 1000 kWhyear in
2013. While there is much uncertainty about future growth rates, especially in
light of expected tariff increases, even at a modest 7 percent growth rate, 2020
sales should reach 180 TWh. The electrification rate is now close to 98 percent.
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SM6 switchgear (Circuit Breakers)

SM6 SWITCHGEAR (CIRCUIT BREAKERS)

Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates, Circuit Makers, Circuit makers, Circuit theory of finance and the role of incentives in financial sector reform, Circuit-breaker nameplates
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THE ROLE OF CREDIT RATING AGENCIES IN FINANCIAL MARKET THE CASE OF SUBPRIME CRISIS IN THE US

THE ROLE OF CREDIT RATING AGENCIES IN FINANCIAL MARKET THE CASE OF SUBPRIME CRISIS IN THE US

In the wake of the recent financial crisis, credit rating agencies (CAR) have been heavily criticized by investors, politicians, and the general public for not putting a red flag on the arising U.S. housing bubble and subsequently the subprime crisis. Yet, only limited research exists on the concrete performance of rating agencies throughout the financial crisis. In this context a rather prominent market segment is U.S. residential mortgagebacked securities (U.S. RMBS): banks mainly used securitization structures to sell off U.S. residential mortgages to worldwide investors and, as we know today, this fuelled the U.S. house price bubble. Because rating agencies acted as their agents and provided a credit rating for each of the issued RMBS, most of which were even rated by multiple agencies and still attested unabated credit quality in the beginning of 2008.
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Financial managment Solution Manual: Financial Planning and Forecasting

FINANCIAL MANAGMENT SOLUTION MANUAL: FINANCIAL PLANNING AND FORECASTING

After reading this chapter, students should be able to:

• Briefly explain the following terms: mission statement, corporate scope, corporate purpose, corporate objectives, and corporate strategies.

• Briefly explain what operating plans are.

• Identify the six steps in the financial planning process.

• List the advantages of computerized financial planning models over “pencil-and-paper” calculations.

• Discuss the importance of sales forecasts in the financial planning process, and why managers construct pro forma financial statements.

• Briefly explain the steps involved in the percent of sales method.

• Calculate additional funds needed (AFN), using both the projected financial statement approach and the formula method.

• Identify other techniques for forecasting financial statements discussed in the text and explain when they should be used.
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NGHIÊN cứu về NGÔN NGỮ sử DỤNG TRONG THƯ tín KINH DOANH TRÊN PHƯƠNG DIỆN HÀNH VI lời nói và các CHIẾN lược LỊCH sự

NGHIÊN CỨU VỀ NGÔN NGỮ SỬ DỤNG TRONG THƯ TÍN KINH DOANH TRÊN PHƯƠNG DIỆN HÀNH VI LỜI NÓI VÀ CÁC CHIẾN LƯỢC LỊCH SỰ

English business letter has been an important and indispensable tool for us to exchange information in global economy. Therefore, writing the efficient letters will determine the success of business communication.
In order to find out the effective ways to write business letters, the study intended to analyze inquiry letters and collection letters in terms of speech acts and politeness strategies.
The study began with the literature review on speech acts and politeness strategies. Then both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in data analysis to answer two research questions. The findings of the study presented speech acts used in two kinds of letters and indicated the most dominant speech act. Besides, tone and appeal which were two aspects of politeness strategies were investigated carefully. From that, the suggestions for writing effective letters were drawn out.
This study hopefully makes a contribution an effective approach to the business correspondence study.
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Effects of increasing in feds interest rate on emerging market economies

EFFECTS OF INCREASING IN FEDS INTEREST RATE ON EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES

Crossborder capital flows have been intensified last decades with the greater financial integration.
After the global financial crisis in 2008 2009, emerging markets economies (EMEs) have (re)started to be
a significant target of global capital flows . “Emergingmarket” assets and currencies became objects
of desire on the part of global investors thanks to the global factors (such as US interest rates, risk
aversion) and domestic factors ( such as the country’s external financing needs , structural characteristics,
the exchange rate regime ). However, emerging markets will suffer a net outflow of capital in th e year of
2015 for the first time since the 1980s as their economic fortunes darken and the US Federal Reserve
prepares to lift interest rates. Emerging nations were facing a fifth consecutive yea r of slowing growth,
adding that an increase in US interest rates could exacerbate conditions in some leading economies. With
the next Federal Open Market Committee ( FOMC) press conference scheduled for December 15, 162015 ,
only one week away, the effect o f increasing in Fed ’s interest rate on EMEs is one of the biggest concerns
all over the world at the end of 2015. This article considers some important factors affecting the Fed ’s
decision on lifting the interest rate and analyses how an interest rate hike would influence on EMEs in the
perspective on the financial capital outflow from emerging markets.
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