TWILIGHT OF THE GODS AND TALLY HO

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "TWILIGHT OF THE GODS AND TALLY HO":

OntapNguphap HKI 11

OntapNguphap HKI 11

tài liệu là tổng hợp một số cấu trúc và ví dụ về ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh, cần thiết cho các bạn ôn tập để làm các bài tập Tiếng Anh phổ thông nói chung. Tặng các bạn một đoạn Tiếng Anh tham khảo không có trong file này: Rice is closely connected to the culture of many societies. (2) ________________ and Buddhist religions use rice as a religious offering. Burmese folklore uses rice as a central part of their creation story; the gods gave the first people of Burma rice seeds and directed them to (3) ________________, where the rice would grow well. A Chinese proverb says that ‘precious things are not pearls and jade but the five grains, of which rice is the finest.’ Chinese (4) ________________ tells how, after severe floods, there was nothing to eat and the people were starving. One day they saw a dog coming across the fields, and hanging onto the dog’s tail were bunches of long yellow seeds. The seeds grew into rice and the people (5) ________________. The origins of rice are uncertain, because rice has been grown for so many thousands of years. In several Asian languages, the words for food and rice, or for rice and (6) ________________, are the same, one of the facts that points to Asia as the origin of rice. It is certain, however, that rice cultivation is one of the most important developments in history, for rice has fed more people over a longer period of time than any other (7) ________________.
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The science of being great

THE SCIENCE OF BEING GREAT

... Now Forward: THE SCIENCE OF BEING GREAT presented by www.healpastlives.com "The Science of Being Great" Prosperity Classic presented by www.healpastlives.com "The Science of Being Great" by Ellen... This volume is the third of a series The first of which is "The Science of Getting Rich", a book intended solely for those who want money The second of which is "The Science of Being Well", a... becomes as one of the gods The awakening of the Principle of Power in man is the real conversion: the passing from death to life It is when the dead hear the voice of the Son of Man and come

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FOREST FRAGMENTATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICALDIVERSITY A MAPPING EXERCISE

FOREST FRAGMENTATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICALDIVERSITY A MAPPING EXERCISE

Forest Fragmentation and its Effects on BiologicalDiversity: A Mapping ExerciseJames P. GibbsSUNY-ESF, Syracuse, New York, 13210, USAReproduction of this material is authorized by the recipient institution for nonprofit/non-commercial educational use and distribution to students enrolled incourse work at the institution. Distribution may be made by photocopying or viathe institution's intranet restricted to enrolled students. Recipient agrees not tomake commercial use, such as, without limitation, in publications distributed by acommercial publisher, without the prior express written consent of AMNH.All reproduction or distribution must provide full citation of the original work andprovide a copyright notice as follows:"Copyright 2006, by the authors of the material, with license for use granted tothe Center for Biodiversity and Conservation of the American Museum of NaturalHistory. All rights reserved."This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundationunder the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement program (NSF0127506), and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Grant Agreement No.98210-1-G017).Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in thismaterial are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of theAmerican Museum of Natural History, the National Science Foundation, or theUnited States Fish and Wildlife Service.Forest Fragmentation and its Effects on BiologicalDiversity: A Mapping ExerciseJames P. GibbsGOALSThis exercise has two goals. The first is to permit you to explore through a
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MATHEMATICS GUIDE

MATHEMATICS GUIDE

situations in a variety of contexts.This objective requires students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding ofthe concepts and skills of the four branches in the prescribed framework (number,algebra, geometry and trigonometry, statistics and probability).In order to reach the aims of mathematics, students should be able to:i. select appropriate mathematics when solving problems in both familiar and unfamiliarsituationsii. apply the selected mathematics successfully when solving problemsiii. solve problems correctly in a variety of contexts.B. Investigating patternsInvestigating patterns allows students to experience the excitement and satisfaction ofmathematical discovery. Working through investigations encourages students to become risktakers, inquirers and critical thinkers. The ability to inquire is invaluable in the MYP andcontributes to lifelong learning.A task that does not allow students to select a problem-solving technique is too guided andshould result in students earning a maximum achievement level of 6 (for years 1 and 2) and amaximum achievement level of 4 (for year 3 and up). However, teachers should give enoughdirection to ensure that all students can begin the investigation.For year 3 and up, a student who describes a general rule consistent with incorrect findings willbe able to achieve a maximum achievement level of 6, provided that the rule is of an equivalentlevel of complexity.In order to reach the aims of mathematics, students should be able to:i. select and apply mathematical problem-solving techniques to discover complex patternsii. describe patterns as general rules consistent with findingsiii. prove, or verify and justify, general rules.C. Communicating
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Topic 39: My favourite author

TOPIC 39: MY FAVOURITE AUTHOR

My favourite author My favourite author is William Shakespeare, a man who has written enough for immortality.    Though a few hundred years have elapsed since the death of Shakespeare and volumes have been written on the life and work of this great writer, his early life still remains a subject for speculation and conjecture. It is generally believed that Shakespeare had very little schooling. Yet his keen intellect and mastery of language have earned for him the appreciation and applause of the literary world.    Shakespeare's fame, 'I think, originates from his ability to identify his readers with the characters in his stories. In most of his stories we find reflections of our own experiences. This shows strikingly that Shakespeare had an insight into 'human nature and the problems of life. His tragedies such as "Macbeth' and "Hamlet” clearly show his deep knowledge of the human mind. Man's ambition, desperation, sorrows, frustrations and hopes are dealt with in these tragedies with such skill that the reader himself experiences all the mental conflicts and emotions, and thus gets a better idea about human nature. With equal skill, Shakespeare deals with man's joys and pleasures in all his comedies. His comedies like, "Twelfth Night" and "As You Like It,' are a delight to read. Through the characters in his stories Shakespeare conveys his views on life and the world. Most of his characters, such as Hamlet, are vehicles for moral instruction. Man's nature is the theme of all his writings. By a skillful combination of words and situations, he reveals the worst as well as the best in man. His choice of words is masterly and many of his phrases are literary gems. As man's nature is his theme, what he wrote years ago remains true even today, and it will remain so till the end of time. It is for all these reasons that I enjoy reading Shakespeare.    However, I do enjoy reading the works of other writers too, such as those of Charles Dickens and Jane Austen. But they do not give the satisfaction that Shakespeare gives. I find Shakespeare's stories so interesting that I have read the same stories several times in last few years; and, every time I read the same story, I learn something new about human nature. Shakespeare was indeed a genius.    NEW WORDS: 1 favourite (adj): được mến chuộng nhất được ưa thích nhất 2. immortality (n): bất tử bất diệt, bất hủ, danh tiếng muôn thuở 3. elapse (v): (nói về thời gian) trôi qua 4. speculation (n): sự nghiên cứu, sự suy xét 5. conjecture (n): sự phỏng đoán 6. applause (n): sự hoan nghênh, sự tán thưởng 7. ambition (n): hoài bão, tham vọng 8. frustration (n): sự làm thất bại, tâm trạng vỡ mộng 9. conflict (n): sự xung đột, cuộc xung đột 10. theme (n): đề tài, chủ đề 11. combination (n): sự kết hợp, sự phôí hợp 12. reveal (v): bộc lộ, biểu lộ, khám phá 13. masterly (adj): rất giỏi, bậc thầy, tài tình 14. gem (n): đá quý, viên ngọc 15. genius (n): người thiên tài, người anh tài, bậc kỳ tài
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4437 SONG FROM TWILIGHT LINKIN PARK LEAVE OUT ALL THE REST

4437 SONG FROM TWILIGHT LINKIN PARK LEAVE OUT ALL THE REST

A song from “TWILIGHT “Linkin Park - "Leave Out All The Rest"Ex. 1 Put the verb in the correct form of PAST SIMPLEwake / scare / dream / careI …………………I was missingYou were so ………………But no one would listen'Cause no one else …………….After my dreamingI ………….with this fearWhat am I leavingWhen I'm done here?So if you're asking meI want you to knowEx. 2. Number the lines in the correctorder.[Chorus]……….Reasons to be missed……….Leave out all the rest……….When my time comes……….And when you're feeling empty……….Help me leave behind some……….Forget the wrong that I've done……….And don't resent me……….Keep me in your memory……….Leave out all the restEx. 3. Listen and write the words you hear.Don't be …………………………….I've …………………..my beatingI've ……………….what I've ……………………I'm …………………on the surface
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TOPIC 62: LIBERTY

TOPIC 62: LIBERTY

Topic 62: Liberty Since his appearance on the earth, man has instinctively longed for liberty, an ideal which has inspired revolts and revolutions throughout the long history of the human race.  The yearning for liberty or freedom is not restricted to man alone. Even animals, birds and all living creatures love the freedom that God has given to them. Like men, these creatures will never submit to captivity without resistance. Neither will they cease to make tenacious efforts to escape, once they are captured.  In the early days of their existence, men were free to pursue their own affairs, within the limits of their own ability. They moved from place to place in small isolated groups and families, in search of food, which consisted of edible plants. fruits and the flesh of animals. The pursuit of the means of survival was their only occupation, and the things that restricted their freedom of movement, to some extent, were their own fears of the unknown and natural barriers such as mountains, dense forests, and rivers. These were no restraints imposed upon them by human institution and they enjoyed their liberty.  Gradually, men learned to live in communities and various institutions were established, which soon curtailed their liberty to a great extent. Rules were made for the cohesions of each community and obedience to those rules was secured by the threat of punishment. This element of compulsion imposed upon the conduct of the individuals in the community restricted the liberty of the people; but the greater security that men enjoyed in community life provided the incentive to partial sacrifices.  Soon, however, conflicts developed among the various communities. The stronger one conquered the weaker one and in the contest for power and domination, hundreds of people lost their liberty completely. The enslavement and suppression of one group of people by another provided the stimulus for numerous revolts and revolutions for liberty which have not ceased till this day. Even in the same community. Sometimes, there were divisions. The rulers, who came to be known as kings, with the development of the communities into countries, were at variance with their subjects. To maintain their status and to assert their authority, kings developed their own theories of kingship, and many of them ruled in the most despotic manner. Defiance of the king's authority was punished by death and imprisonment. What constituted defiance was decided arbitrarily by the king or his ministers, and thousands or people were deprived of their liberty.  Eventually, however, despotism aroused the fury of political thinkers and writers in many countries. A crusade then began against oppression and despotism, and the cry for liberty was heard everywhere. Revolutions erupted; despotic rulers were overthrown, and new rulers were compelled to rule with the consent of the people. The French Revolution of the eighteenth century is the best example of the extremity to which people were prepared to go to retain or regain their liberty, which is claimed to be the birth-right of every man.  But liberty does not mean licence. In other words, men's liberty of action should not be excessive. The French Revolution is, unfortunately, also the best example of how men may lose their sense of proportion and justice, in their attempts to assert their liberty. In that revolution hundreds of innocent men, women, and children lost their lives at the hands of those who took full advantage of the anarchy that then prevailed in France, to assert their liberty of action. Such actions are indeed licentious .  Thus, it may be argued that liberty will remain the battle-cry of all the people, but those who have it should not use it to hurt or offend others or to deprive others of their liberty.  NEW WORDS: 1. liberty (n): sự tự do, quyền tự do 2. revolt (n): cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa, cuộc nổi loạn 3. submit (v): chịu phục tùng, quy phục, ngừng phản kháng 4. tenacious (adj): kiên trì, ngoan cường, ngoan cố 5. isolated (adj): biệt lập, cô đơn 6. restraint (n): sự kiềm chế, sự gò bó, sự ràng buộc 7. curtail (v): tước đi, lấy đi  8. cohesion (n): sự dính liền, sự cố kết 9. compulsion (n): sự ép buộc, sự cưỡng bức 10. conquer (v): chinh phục, chế ngự 11. enslavement (n): sự nô dịch hoá, tình trạng bị nô dịch 12. suppression (n): sự đàn áp hoặc bị đàn áp 13. stimulus (n): sự kích thích, tác nhân kích thích 14. status (n): đia vị, thân phận, thân thế 15. despotic (adj): chuyên chế, chuyên quyền, bạo ngược 16. defiance (n): sự công khai kháng cự hoặc không tuân theo 17. constitute (v): cấu thành, tạo thành 18. arbitrarily (adv): chuyên quyền, độc đoán 19. arouse (v): đánh thức, khuâý động, gợi 20. crusade (n): chiến dịch; cuộc vận động lớn 21. claim (v): khẳng định, quá quyết 22. excessive (adj): quá thể, quá đáng 23. anarchy (n): tình trạng vô chính phú, tình trạng hỗn loạn 24. prevail (v): thắng thế, chiếm ưu thế, phổ biến khắp nơi 25. licentious (adj): bừa bãi, phóng túng 26. oppress (v): áp bức, đàn áp
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FRANCHISE PRESENTATION

FRANCHISE PRESENTATION

Passionately Caring INTRODUCING THE BUSINESS FRANCHISE OF NA SPA Passionately Caring CONTENT NA SPA PROFILE PROCESS TO SECLECT FRANCHISEES SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR ALL FEES RELATING TO BUY A FRANCHISE BRAND HISTORY • 1996 The first outlet was opened as a haircare massage salon by Madam Ngoc Anh in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. • 1997 The salon was converted to a traditional therapy practice in response to local regulations on massage therapy. • 1998 Tama Company Limited was established to develop Ngoc Anh as a brand in the spa massage industry in Vietnam, and the first official Ngoc Anh Spa was launched at 348 Cach Mang Thang 8 Street, District 3, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Passionately Caring BRAND HISTORY • 2000 The Second outlet was established at 311 Nguyen Binh Khiem Street, Dakao Ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The outlet is still in operation until today. • 2003 The third outlet was launched at 93 Nguyen Binh Khiem St., District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam in response to the increasing needs of Ngoc Anh’s guests. • 2009The third outlet was relocated to 85 Mai Thi Luu Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam Passionately Caring BRAND HISTORY • 2011 VinaSpa School was established focusing on professional training for massage therapists in Vietnam • 2014 NA International Spa Development JSC was established to own the global rights of Ngoc Anh spa and to develop the brand globally through franchise model. Passionately Caring VISSION To become a respected global oriental brand in the health wellness industry Passionately Caring MISSION Passionately Caring We are committed to building a global community who consistently care for the health and wellness of our guests by providing professional, quality, natural products services with a heart to serve. VALUES • We will always strive for excellence and innovation in everything we do. • Our partnerships are built upon integrity trust. • We foster a culture of joy and passion. • We care for people with our heart and pledge to build better lives for our community. Passionately Caring ACCESSIBL E AUTHENTIC GENEROUS SPIRITED WHOLESOME BRAND CORE DRIVERS Passionately Caring MAIN LOGO Passionately Caring Passionately Caring DESIGN CONCEPT STEP 1 • Getting information from franchisees • Providing information about the brand and franchise model • Sending and receiving Franchise application form STEP 2 • Meeting between Franchisor and potential franchisees STEP 3 • Sening Letter of Intent (LOI) • Receiving the signed LOI STEP 4 • Sending Subfranchise agreement template • Meeting and discussing the contract to go through • Signing Subfranchise agreement STEP 5 • Deploying and implementing the project PROCESS TO SELECT FRANCHISEES Passionately Caring 1. TRAINING: Support training of executives and staff Support recruitment, training and providing Therapists SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR Passionately Caring 2. OPERATION: Support managing the project from locating outlet till opening. Support providing an experienced manager in operating for the first month open. Providing operating manual in accordance with the standard of NA Spa. Inspecting, evaluating and recommending all actions to help develop outlet monthly. SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR Passionately Caring SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR 3. SUPPIER: Provide a list and referral all suppliers who provide equipments and smallwares using at spa base on the standard of NA  Provide design concept and referral design partner. Passionately Caring 4. MARKETING: NA company directly implements the programs to promote the Brand. Guiding and supporting to franchisees planning Local Store Marketing to promote outlet at surrounding area. Supporting and providing all POSM need to use for LSM program at the branch area. SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR Passionately Caring Passionately Caring 5. FINANCE: Support evaluating the potential of outlet. Support forecasting the investment budget, revenue, profit, cash flow, ability, and investment payback period for franchisee partner. SUPPORTING FROM FRANCHISOR Passionately Caring ALL FEES RELATING TO BUY A FRANCHISE 1. License fee for 5 years (pay right after signing contract) 2. Royalty fee (8% over monthly revenue) 3. Marketing fee (2% over monthly revenue) Passionately Caring MAI HUONG NGUYEN General Manager NA Spa International Development Corporation Mob: (+84) 907 920 612 Email: huongmainnaspa.com CONTACT Passionately Caring
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Topic 59: Journalism as a career

TOPIC 59: JOURNALISM AS A CAREER

Journalism as a career Almost everyone who can read and write sometimes feels the urge to write on some favourite topic. But some people love writing so much that they spend much of their time in writing something on various subjects for the sheer pleasure of writing. Such people usually become skillful writers; and if the ability to write with ease and facility was enough to achieve success in the field of journalism, many people would make journalism their career.    In countries like England and Japan, where there are hundreds of newspapers and journals, journalism is an attractive profession. It is a very good source or income to many. But in Malaysia there are so few newspapers and journals that journalism offers almost no prospect of success. Even in England and Japan, however, many people have failed to achieve any success in this field. To be successful in journalism, one must have many other qualities, besides the ability to write effectively. One of the most important qualities is the ability to judge what the average reader likes or dislikes. If one writes for a political journal, one should have a fair knowledge of what the readers of that journal expect from it. If one writes for a women's journal, one should know almost instinctively what its readers prefer. Accordingly, the journalist should gather information from all possible sources for his articles and stories for publication. He may even have to distort or omit certain facts and information, which in his judgement may appear unpleasant to his readers. Further, if certain unpleasant facts have to be revealed to his readers, he has to employ words with such skill that his readers will take almost no offence. All these require great intellectual qualities.    Besides, to collect information, the journalist has to travel extensively and meet many people, far and near. As too much travelling involve great physical activity, the journalist has to pay sufficient attention to his health to keep himself strong. He has also to cultivate pleasing habits to meet all sorts of people. He must also he prepared to work under very unpleasant circumstances. For example, if he is working for a popular newspaper, he may have to be at the scene or a battle and risk his life to send his report to his newspaper office. All this involves great personal sacrifice.    Finally, a good journalist should have a good grasp of the constitutional rights of the citizens of his country and the policies of his government. He should also know the laws of libel and slander. Ignorance of any or these may lead him to make unfair criticisms and disclosures which may cause serious troubles in the country. Thus, success in journalism is not easy to attain, and only a few people make it their career.  NEW WORDS: 1. facility (n): khả năng học hoăc làm việc một cách dễ dàng 2. achieve (v): đạt được, giành được 3. journalism (n): nghề làm báo, viết báo 4 . judge ( v ): xét đoán, phán đoán, đánh giá 5. instinctively (adv): theo bản năng, do bản năng 6. distort (n): bóp méo, xuyên tạc 7. sufficient (adj): đầy đủ 8. circumstance (n) : hoàn cảnh, trường hợp 9. constitutional (adj) : thuộc hiến pháp, theo hiến pháp 10. libel (n) : lời phỉ báng, tội phỉ báng 11. slander (n): sự vu khống. sự vu cáo 12. disclosure (n) : sự vạch trần, sự phơi bày
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Lipids, Fats, and Oils

Lipids, Fats, and Oils

131 5 Lipids, Fats, and Oils Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Theodoros H. Varzakas, Sotirios Kiokias, and Athanasios E. Labropoulos CONTENTS 5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 132 5.1.1 Fatty Acids ................................................................................................................ 133 5.1.2 Saturated Fatty Acids................................................................................................ 133 5.1.3 Unsaturated Fatty Acids ........................................................................................... 134 5.1.4 Acylglycerols ............................................................................................................ 134 5.2 Major Oils and Fats .............................................................................................................. 134 5.2.1 Oils and Fats of Vegetable Origin ............................................................................ 139 5.2.1.1 Olive Oil ..................................................................................................... 139 5.2.1.2 Corn Oil ..................................................................................................... 139 5.2.1.3 Soybean Oil ................................................................................................ 139 5.2.1.4 Sunfl ower Oil ............................................................................................. 142 5.2.1.5 Cottonseed Oil ........................................................................................... 142 5.2.1.6 Wheat Germ Oil ........................................................................................ 142 5.2.1.7 Rapeseed or Canola Oil ............................................................................. 143 5.2.1.8 Palm and Palm Kernel Oil ......................................................................... 143 5.2.1.9 Saffl ower Oil .............................................................................................. 144 5.2.1.10 Coconut Oil ................................................................................................ 144 5.2.1.11 Cocoa Butter .............................................................................................. 144 5.2.1.12 Sesame Oil ................................................................................................. 145 5.2.2 Oils and Fats of Animal Origin ................................................................................ 145 5.2.2.1 Butter .......................................................................................................... 145 5.2.2.2 Lard ............................................................................................................ 146 5.2.2.3 Tallow......................................................................................................... 146 5.2.2.4 Ghee ........................................................................................................... 146 5.2.2.5 Fish Oil ...................................................................................................... 147 5.3 Physical Parameters .............................................................................................................. 148 5.3.1 Crystallization, Melting Point, and Polymorphism .................................................. 148 5.3.1.1 Crystallization ............................................................................................ 148 5.3.1.2 Melting Point .............................................................................................. 149 5.3.1.3 Polymorphism ............................................................................................ 149 5.3.2 Density, Viscosity, and Refractive Index .................................................................. 149 5.3.2.1 Density ....................................................................................................... 149 5.3.2.2 Viscosity..................................................................................................... 150 5.3.2.3 Refractive Index ......................................................................................... 150 5.4 Chemical Parameters ............................................................................................................ 150 5.4.1 Oxidation .................................................................................................................. 150 132 Advances in Food Biochemistry 5.4.1.1 Autoxidation ............................................................................................... 150 5.4.1.2 AzoInitiated Oxidation ............................................................................. 151 5.4.1.3 Photosensitized Oxidation ......................................................................... 151 5.4.1.4 Metal Catalyzed Oxidation ........................................................................ 152 5.4.1.5 Enzyme Catalyzed Oxidation .................................................................... 152 5.4.1.6 Decomposition of Hydroperoxides ............................................................ 153 5.4.1.7 Physical Aspects—Lipid Oxidation in Food Emulsions ........................... 153 5.4.2 Antioxidant Activity of Carotenoids......................................................................... 154 5.4.2.1 Carotenoids as Radical Scavengers—Mechanism of Antioxidant Action ..................................................................................... 154 5.4.2.2 Reactivity of Carotenoids Toward Free Radicals—Effect of Structure on Scavenging Activity .............................................................. 155 5.4.2.3 Oxidative Degradation of Carotenoids by Free Radicals .......................... 156 5.4.2.4 Oxygen Quenching Activity of Carotenoids on OilPhotooxidation ......... 156 5.4.3 Natural Antioxidants Tested ..................................................................................... 157 5.4.3.1 Tocopherols and Tocotrienols .................................................................... 157 5.4.3.2 Ascorbic Acid and Ascorbyl Palmitate ...................................................... 159 5.4.3.3 OliveOil Phenolics .................................................................................... 160 5.5 Legislation for Oils and Fats ................................................................................................. 161 5.5.1 EU Legislation for Oils and Fats .............................................................................. 161 5.5.2 U.S. Legislation Related to Oil ................................................................................. 162 5.5.3 Canada Legislation Focused on Oil .......................................................................... 165 5.6 Authenticity of Oils and Fats ................................................................................................ 166 5.6.1 Authenticity of Vegetable Oils and Fats ................................................................... 166 5.6.1.1 Olive Oil Authenticity ................................................................................ 166 5.6.1.2 Maize Oil Authenticity .............................................................................. 181 5.6.1.3 Rapeseed Oil Authenticity ......................................................................... 181 5.6.1.4 Sesame Oil Authenticity ............................................................................ 181 5.6.1.5 Mustard Oil Authenticity ........................................................................... 182 5.6.1.6 Cocoa Butter Authenticity ......................................................................... 182 5.6.1.7 Palm, Palm Kernel, and Coconut Oils Authenticity .................................. 183 5.6.2 Authenticity of Animal Oils and Fats ....................................................................... 183 5.6.2.1 Butter Authenticity ..................................................................................... 184 5.6.2.2 Lard Authenticity ....................................................................................... 184 5.7 Functional and Health Properties of Fats and Oils in Foods ................................................ 185 5.7.1 Functional Issues ...................................................................................................... 185 5.7.2 Health Issues ............................................................................................................. 187 5.7.3 Process and Application Issues ................................................................................. 189 5.7.3.1 Shortenings “Puff Pastry” and Margarines ............................................... 189 5.7.3.2 Baker’s Margarines .................................................................................... 189 5.7.3.3 Pie’s Shortenings ........................................................................................ 189 References ...................................................................................................................................... 190 5.1 INTRODUCTION Lipids consist of a broad group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents but only sparingly soluble in water. They are major components of adipose tissue, and together with proteins and carbohydrates, they constitute the principal structural components of all living cells. Glycerol esters of fatty acids, which make up to 99% of the lipids of plant and animal origin, have been traditionally called fats and oils.1 The difference between oils and fats is that fats are solids at room temperatures.2 Lipids, Fats, and Oils 133 The majority of lipids are derivatives of fatty acids. In these socalled acyl lipids, the fatty acids are present as esters, and in some minor lipid groups in amide forms (Table 5.1). The acyl residue infl uences strongly the hydrophobicity and the reactivity of the acyl lipids. Some lipids act as building blocks in the formation of biological membranes, which surround cells and subcellular particles. Primarily, triacylglycerols are deposited in some animal tissues and organs of some plants. Lipid content in such storage tissues can rise to 15%–20% or higher and so serve as a commercial source for isolation of triacylglycerols.3 5.1.1 FATTY ACIDS Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long, unbranched aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Carboxylic acids as short as butyric acid (four carbon atoms) are considered to be fatty acids, whereas fatty acids derived from natural fats and oils may be assumed to have at least eight carbon atoms, e.g., caprylic acid (octanoic acid). Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids derived from or contained in an esterifi ed form in an animal or vegetable fat, oil, or wax. Natural fatty acids commonly have a chain of 4–28 carbons (usually unbranched and even numbered), which may be saturated or unsaturated. By extension, the term is sometimes used to embrace all acyclic aliphatic carboxylic acids.4 5.1.2 SATURATED FATTY ACIDS Saturated fatty acids do not contain any double bonds or other functional groups along the chain. The term “saturated” refers to hydrogen, in that all carbons (apart from the carboxylic acid –COOH group) contain as many hydrogens as possible. Saturated fatty acids form straight chains and, as a result, can be packed together very tightly, allowing living organisms to store chemical energy very densely. The fatty tissues of animals contain large amounts of longchain saturated fatty acids.5 Fatty acids have an “oic” suffi x to the name of the acid but the suffi x is usually “ic.” The shortest descriptions of fatty acids include only the number of carbon atoms and double bonds in them TABLE 5.1 Lipid Classifi cation Classifi cation Categories Characteristics Acyl residue Simple lipids (not saponifi able) Free fatty acids — Isoprenoid lipids Steroids, carotenoids, monoterpenes Tocopherols — Acyl lipids (saponifi able) Mono, di, triacylglycerols Fatty acids, glycerol Phospholipids (phosphatides) Fatty acids, glycerol or sphingosine, phosphoric acid, organic base Glycolipids Fatty acids, glycerol or sphingosine, mono, di, or oligosaccharide Diol lipids Fatty acids, ethane, propane, or butane diol Waxes Fatty acids, fatty alcohol Sterol esters Fatty acids, sterol Neutralpolar Glycerophospholipids Fatty acids (>C12) Glyceroglycolipids Mono, di, or triacylglycerols Sphingophospholipids Sterols, sterol esters Sphingoglycolipids Carotenoids, waxes, tocopherols 134 Advances in Food Biochemistry (e.g., C18:0 or 18:0). C18:0 means that the carbon chain of the fatty acid consists of 18 carbon atoms, and there are no (zero) double bonds in it, whereas C18:1 describes an 18carbon chain with one double bond in it. Each double bond can be in either a cis or trans conformation and in a different position with respect to the ends of the fatty acid; therefore, not all C18:1s, for example, are identical. If there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid, it is no longer considered saturated, but rather mono or polyunsaturated.6 The characteristics of saturated fatty acids are given in Table 5.2. 5.1.3 UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Unsaturated fatty acids are of similar form, except that one or more allyl functional groups exist along the chain, with each alkene substituting a singlebonded “–CH2–CH2–” part of the chain with a doublebonded “–CH=CH–” portion. The two next carbon atoms in the chain that are bound to either side of the double bond can occur in a cis or trans confi guration.7 A cis confi guration means that adjacent carbon atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. The more double bonds the chain has in the cis confi guration, the less fl exibility it has. When a chain has many cis bonds, it becomes quite curved in its most accessible conformations.8 For example, oleic acid has one double bond, and linoleic acid with two double bonds has a more pronounced bend. αLinolenic acid, with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. The effect of this is that in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore could affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat.9 A trans confi guration, by contrast, means that the next two carbon atoms are bound to opposite sides of the double bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids.10 In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids, each double bond has 3n carbon atoms after it, for some n, and all are cis bonds. Most fatty acids in the trans confi guration (trans fats) are not found in nature and are the result of human processing. The differences in geometry between the various types of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, play an important role in biological processes, and in the construction of biological structures (such as cell membranes).11 The characteristics of unsaturated fatty acids are given in Table 5.3. 5.1.4 ACYLGLYCEROLS Neutral fats are mono, di, and triesters of glycerol with fatty acids, and are termed monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and triacylglycerols, respectively. They are designated as neutral lipids. Edible oils or fats consist nearly completely of triacylglycerols.3 Although glycerol by itself is a completely symmetrical molecule, the central carbon atom acquires chirality (asymmetry) if one of the primary hydroxyl groups (on carbons 1–3) is esterifi ed, or if the two primary hydroxyls are esterifi ed to different acids.1 5.2 MAJOR OILS AND FATS All oils and fats, with their high carbon and hydrogen content, can be traced back to organic sources. Oils and fats are also produced by plants, animals, and other organisms through organic processes and these oils are remarkable in their diversity.12 Oils are fats that are liquids at room temperature. Solid fats are fats that are solids at room temperature, like butter and shortening. Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation.13 Lipids, Fats, and Oils 135 TABLE 5.2 Saturated Fatty Acids IUPAC Name Common Name Abbreviation Chemical Structure Structure Melting Point (°C) Butanoic acid Butyric acid 4:0 CH3(CH2)2COOH O OH −7.9 Pentanoic acid Valeric acid 5:0 CH3(CH2)3COOH OH O −34.5 Hexanoic acid Caproic acid 6:0 CH3(CH2)4COOH O OH −3.9 Heptanoic acid Enanthic acid 7:0 CH3(CH2)5COOH O OH −7.5 Octanoic acid Caprylic acid 8:0 CH3(CH2)6COOH O OH 16.3 Nonanoic acid Pelargonic acid 9:0 CH3(CH2)7COOH O OH 12.4 Decanoic acid Capric acid 10:0 CH3(CH2)8COOH O OH 31.3 Dodecanoic acid Lauric acid 12:0 CH3(CH2)10COOH O OH 44 Tetradecanoic acid Myristic acid 14:0 CH3(CH2)12COOH O OH 54.4 Hexadecanoic acid Palmitic acid 16:0 CH3(CH2)14COOH O OH 62.9 (continued) 136 Advances in Food Biochemistry TABLE 5.2 (continued) Saturated Fatty Acids IUPAC Name Common Name Abbreviation Chemical Structure Structure Melting Point (°C) Heptadecanoic acid Margaric acid 17:0 CH3(CH2)15COOH O OH 61.3 Octadecanoic acid Stearic acid 18:0 CH3(CH2)16COOH O OH 69.6 Eicosanoic acid Arachidic acid 20:0 CH3(CH2)18COOH O O H 75.4 Docosanoic acid Behenic acid 22:0 CH3(CH2)20COOH CH3 O HO 80.0 Tetracosanoic acid Lignoceric acid 24:0 CH3(CH2)22COOH COOH 84.2 Hexacosanoic acid Cerotic acid 26:0 CH3(CH2)24COOH O OH 87.7 Lipids, Fats, and Oils 137 TABLE 5.3 Unsaturated Fatty Acids Common Name Abbreviation Chemical Structure Structure Family (w) Family (D) Melting Point (°C) Myristoleic acid 14:1 CH3(CH2)3CH=CH(CH2)7COOH O OH ω5 cisΔ9 — Palmitoleic acid 16:1 CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH O OH ω7 cisΔ9 0.1 Oleic acid 18:1 CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH O OH ω9 cisΔ9 13.4 Linoleic acid 18:2 CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH (CH2)7COOH O 1 9 12 6 1 HO ω ω6 cis, cisΔ9, Δ12 −5 αLinolenic acid 18:3 CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2 CH=CH(CH2)7COOH O α ω HO1 9 9 6 3 1 12 15 18 ω3 cis, cis, cisΔ9, Δ12, Δ15 −11 γLinolenic acid 18:3 (CH=CHCH2)3CH2CH2CH2COOH O HO 1 6 9 12 6 1 ω ω6 cis, cis, cisΔ6, Δ9, Δ12 — Arachidonic acid 20:4 CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2 CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH O HO1 5 8 11 14 6 1 ω ω6 cis, cis, cis, cis Δ5, Δ8, Δ11, Δ14 −49.5 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5 CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2 CH=CH(CH2)3COOH 1 5 8 11 14 17 20 6 3 1 O HO ω α ω3 cis, cis, cis, cis, cisΔ5, Δ8, Δ11, Δ14, Δ17 — (continued) 138 Advances in Food Biochemistry TABLE 5.3 (continued) Unsaturated Fatty Acids Common Name Abbreviation Chemical Structure Structure Family (w) Family (D) Melting Point (°C) Erucic acid 22:1 CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)11COOH O OH ω9 cisΔ13 34.7 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6 CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2 CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH CH2CH=CH(CH2)2COOH 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 3 1 HO O ω ω3 cis, cis, cis, cis, cis, cisΔ5, Δ8, Δ11, Δ14, Δ17 — Nervonic acid 24:1 (CH2)12COOH O OH ω9 cisΔ15 42.5 Lipids, Fats, and Oils 139 5.2.1 OILS AND FATS OF VEGETABLE ORIGIN The vegetable oils may be subdivided into three categories: (1) byproducts, where the crop is grown for another purpose other than seed oil, e.g., cotton (fabric), (2) three crops, which are generally slow to mature but then produce crops regularly for many years (olive, palm, and coconut), (3) crops, which have to be replanted each year to produce an annual harvest and where decisions about cultivation are made each sowing season by a large number of individual farmers (rape, sunfl ower, sesame, etc.).14 Typical fatty acid compositions of vegetable oils and fats are summarized in Table 5.4. 5.2.1.1 Olive Oil Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide, about 95% of those in the Mediterranean region. Most of the global production comes from Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Of the European production, 93% comes from Spain, Italy, Turkey, and Greece. Spain’s production alone accounts for 40%–45% of the world production, which was 2.6 million metric tons in 2002.15 In olive oil–producing countries, the local production is generally considered the fi nest. The olive oil extraction is carried out with technological industrial processes (continuous or discontinuous), even though the quality and the quantity of the obtained oil are still to be optimized.16 The most traditional way of making olive oil is by grinding olives. Green olives produce bitter oil and overly ripened olives produce rancid oil, so care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. First, the olives are ground into an olive paste using large mills. The olive paste generally stays under the mills for 30–40 min. The oil collected during this part of the process is called virgin oil. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fi ber disks, which are stacked on top of each other, and then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the disk to further separate the oil from the paste. This second step produces a lower grade of oil.17 The production of olive oil is shown in Figure 5.1. The oil is characterized by a high level of oleic acid with Codex ranges of 8%–20% for palmitic acid, 55%–83% for oleic acid and 4%–21% for linoleic acid.18 Extra virgin olive oil has a perfect fl avor and odor with a maximum acidity of 1% (as oleic acid). Fine virgin oil also has a perfect fl avor and odor with a maximum acidity of 2%. Semifi ne or ordinary virgin oil has good fl avor and odor and a maximum acidity of 3.3% with a 10% margin of tolerance. Virgin olive oil with an offfl avor or offodor and acidity >3.3% is designated lampante. Refi ned olive oil, obtained from virgin olive oil by refi ning methods which do not affect fatty acid or glycerol ester composition, should have acidity
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Analysis of runs and patterns and their applications

ANALYSIS OF RUNS AND PATTERNS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

... the position of occurrence Due to the many areas of applications of runs and patterns, different statistics of runs and patterns have been defined for various purposes Occurrence of runs, distance... small number of runs, or clusters of same symbols, or by runs of unexpected length Thus the total number of runs and the lengths of the runs should reflect the existence of some sort of pattern... consisting of 1s and 0s In [7], the analysis of nucleotide sequences leads to the analysis of runs and patterns on the alphabet set {a, t, c, g} The authors find the mean and variance of the number of
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Ancient Egyptian Woman with 70 Hair Extensions Discovered

Ancient Egyptian Woman with 70 Hair Extensions Discovered

Ancient Egyptian Woman with 70 Hair Extensions Discovered By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | September 17, 2014 08:40am ET 6447 438 74 Submit 1275 Reddit The remains of a 3,300yearold woman who wore a complex hairstyle with 70 hair extensions was discovered in the ancient city of Armana. Credit: Photo by Jolanda Bos and Lonneke Beukenholdt View full size image More than 3,300 years ago, in a newly built city in Egypt, a woman with an incredibly elaborate hairstyle of lengthy hair extensions was laid to rest. She was not mummified, her body simply being wrapped in a mat. When archaeologists uncovered her remains they found she wore a very complex coiffure with approximately 70 extensions fastened in different layers and heights on the head, writes Jolanda Bos, an archaeologist working on the Amarna Project, in an article recently published in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Researchers dont know her name, age or occupation, but she is one of hundreds of people, including many others whose hairstyles are still intact, who were buried in a cemetery near an ancient city now called Amarna. See Photos of the Egyptian Skeletons and Elaborate Hairstyles This city was constructed as a new capital of Egypt by Akhenaten (reign ca. 13531335 B.C.), a pharaoh who unleashed a religious revolution that saw the Aten, a deity shaped as a sun disk, assume supremacy in Egyptian religion. Akhenaten ordered that Amarna be constructed in the desert and that images of some of Egypts other gods be destroyed. Amarna was abandoned shortly after Akhenatens death, and today archaeologists supported by the Amarna Trust are investigating all aspects of the ancient city, including the hairstyles its people wore. Bos is leading the hairstyle research, and the woman with 70 extensions leaves her puzzled. Whether or not the woman had her hair styled like this for her burial only is one of our main research questions, said Bos in an email to Live Science. The hair was most likely styled after death, before a person was buried. It is also likely, however, that these hairstyles were used in everyday life as well and that the people in Amarna used hair extensions in their daily life. Many of the other skulls Bos analyzed also had hair extensions. One skull had extensions made of gray and dark black hair suggesting multiple people donated their hair to create extensions. Hairy discoveries As Bos analyzed a selection of 100 recently excavated skulls (of which 28 still had hair) from the Armana cemetery, she noticed the people who lived in the ancient city had a wide variety of hair types. They range from very curly black hair, to middle brown straight, she noted in the journal article, something that might reflect a degree of ethnic variation. Photos: 10 Iconic Hairstyles That Took Root Those skulls with brown hair often had rings or coils around their ears, a style that was popular at Amarna, she found. Why people in this city liked it is unknown. We still have no idea. This is of course one of the answers we are still trying to find from the record, said Bos in the email. People in the city also seemed to be fond of braids. All braids found in the coiffures were simple and of three strands, mostly 1 cm 0.4 inches wide, with strands of approximately 0.5 cm 0.2 inches when tightly braided, Bos writes in the journal article. People at Amarna also liked to keep their hair short. Braids were often not more than 20 cm 7.9 inches long, leaving the hair at shoulder length approximately, Bos added. The longest hair that was found consisted of multilayered extensions to a length of approximately 30 cm 11.8 inches. Fat was used to help create all the hairstyles Bos found, something that would have helped keep the hair in one piece after death. More research is needed to determine whether the fat was from animals. A textile found on each of the skulls may have been used to cover part of the head. Hide the gray? In one case a woman has an orangered color on her graying hair. It appears that that she dyed her hair, possibly with henna (a flowering plant). We are still not completely sure if and what kind of hair coloring was used on this hair, it only seems that way macroscopically, said Bos in the email. At present we are analyzing the hairs in order to find out whether or not some kind of coloring was used. On other sites dyed hair was found from ancient Egypt. This woman, among other ancient Egyptians, may have dyed her hair for the same reason as why people dye their hair today, in order not to show the gray color, Bos said. Follow Live Science livescience, Facebook Google+. Original article on Live Science. Editors Recommendations • Look at Those Locks Historical Hairstyles That Took Root • Photos: 1,700YearOld Egyptian Mummy Revealed • In Photos: Egyptian Pyramid Predates Giza Landmark http:www.livescience.com47875ancientegyptianwomanwithhairextensions.html summarize: More than 3,300 years ago, in a newly built city in Egypt , a woman with an incredibly elaborate hairstyle of lengthy hair extensions was laid to rest. Today, archaeologists supported by the Amarna Trust are investigating all spects of the ancient city, including the hairstyles it people wore. Bos is leading the hairstyle research, and the woman with 70 extensions leaves her puzzled. As Bos analyzed a selection of 100 recently excavated skulls from the Armana cemetery, she noticed the people who lived in the ancient city had a wide variety of hair types. People in the city also seemed to be fond of braids. People at Amarna also liked to keep their hair short. This woman, among other ancient Egyptians, may have dyed her hair “for the same reason as why people dye their hair today, in order not to show the graycolor”,
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THE CHARTER THE BYLAWS OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

THE CHARTER THE BYLAWS OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES

CHARTER OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES PREAMBLE We, the Democrats of the United States of America, united in common purpose, hereby rededicate ourselves to the principles which have historically sustained our Party. Recognizing that the vitality of the Nations political institutions has been the foundation of its enduring strength, we acknowledge that a political party which wishes to lead must listen to those it would lead, a party which asks for the peoples trust must prove that it trusts the people and a party which hopes to call forth the best the Nation can achieve must embody the best of the Nations heritage and traditions. What we seek for our Nation, we hope for all people: individual freedom in the framework of a just society, political freedom in the framework of meaningful participation by all citizens. Bound by the United States Constitution, aware that a party must be responsive to be worthy of responsibility, we pledge ourselves to open, honest endeavor and to the conduct of public affairs in a manner worthy of a society of free people. Under God, and for these ends and upon these principles, we do establish and adopt this Charter of the Democratic Party of the United States of America. ARTICLE ONE The Democratic Party of the United States of America The Democratic Party of the United States of America shall: Section 1. Nominate and assist in the election of Democratic candidates for the offices of President and Vice President of the United States; Section 2. Adopt and promote statements of policy; Section 3. Assist state and local Democratic Party organizations in the election of their candidates and the education of their voters; Section 4. Establish standards and rules of procedure to afford all members of the Democratic Party full, timely and equal opportunities to participate in decisions concerning the selection of candidates, the formulation of policy, and the conduct of other Party affairs, without prejudice on the basis of sex, race, age (if of voting age), color, creed, national origin, religion, economic status, gender identity, sexual orientation, gender identity, ethnic identity or physical disability, and further, to promote fair campaign
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Topic 24: A narrow escape

TOPIC 24: A NARROW ESCAPE

A narrow escape Whenever my mind travels over the past events in my life, one incident stands out prominently to remind me of the narrow escape I once had from almost certain death.  In the rubber estates of west Malaysia there are hundreds of snakes of which the cobra is the most dangerous and venomous. This snake has a preference for cool places along the numerous streams found in the estates, where it relaxes, especially in the afternoon. Those who catch fish from these streams have, therefore, to be on the look-out for cobras. All this I did not know until I came face to face with a cobra one day, while fishing with my brother.  My brother and I were then spending our holidays in an estate where our father was employed. In the afternoons, my brother, who loves fishing, and I would go out to catch fish from the streams not very far from our father's house.  Wherever the water was shallow, we got down into the streams and searched for holes where fish usually like to shelter. When we found one, we put our hands in and often caught some fish. Fishing in this way had its moments of excitement, for at times we also caught some water- snakes, which we found to be harmless. Then, one day, I came so close to death that I made up my mind never to catch fish again in that way.  A cobra, about six feet long, was lying along the water's edge of one side of the stream in which we were fishing. Its tail was in the water, but it was concealed by the reeds and grasses along that stream. As I put my hand into the water, my searching fingers touched something tender. Thinking that it was a fish, I gripped it at once and tried to bring it out of the water. But it resisted violently, and to my consternation I discovered that it was a cobra. I relaxed my grip at once and rushed for safety. My brother, who was a few yards away, was too surprised to speak. But he soon saw the cobra which was now rushing towards him with its hood fully opened. I picked up stick hurriedly and threw it at the cobra. Surprisingly, the cobra now turned towards me, and I took to my heels. My brother then picked up a stick and ran after the cobra and managed to kill it just at the time when I was almost exhausted. lf he had been a little late, I might have been killed by the cobra. That was indeed a very narrow escape, an escape I shall never forget.  NEW WORDS: 1. prominently (adv): dễ thấy, nổi bật 2. narrow escape (n): suýt chết 3. estate (n): vùng đất (nhất là nông thôn) 4. cobra (n): rắn mang bành 5. shelter (v): ẩn náu, nương tựa 6. conceal (v): giấu giếm, giấu, che đậy 7. resist (v): kháng cự, chống lại 8. consternation (n): sự kinh hoàng 9. exhaust (adj): kiệt sức, mệt lử
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Information content and policy implications of stock splits, new evidence from the saudi arabian capital market

INFORMATION CONTENT AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF STOCK SPLITS, NEW EVIDENCE FROM THE SAUDI ARABIAN CAPITAL MARKET

... permission of the copyright owner Further reproduction prohibited without permission Information Content and Policy Implications of Stock Splits: New Evidence from the Saudi Arabian Capital Market. .. consisting of the minister of finance and national economy, the minister of commerce and industry, and the governor of the Saudi Monetary Agency The purpose of this research is to study the impact of. .. the market response to the announcement of the new policy and the magnitude of abnormal returns surrounding the announcement date The study then investigates whether the policy appears to have information
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A New Database on Financial Development and Structure

A New Database on Financial Development and Structure

This paper introduces a new database of indicators of financial development and structure across countries and over time. This database is unique in that it unites a wide variety of indicators that measure the size, activity and efficiency of financial intermediaries and markets. It improves on previous efforts by presenting data on the public share of commercial banks, by introducing indicators of the size and activity of nonbank financial institutions and by presenting measures of the size of bond and primary equity markets. This paper describes the sources, the construction and the intuition for the different indicators and presents descriptive statistics.
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National nutrition strategy 2011 2020

National nutrition strategy 2011 2020

NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY FOR 20112020, WITH A VISION TOWARD 2030 HANOI, FEBRUARY 2012 DECISION Ratification of the National Nutrition Strategy for 2011 – 2020, With a Vision toward 2030 THE PRIME MINISTER Based upon the Government Organization Law dated 25 December 2001; and Based upon National Socioeconomic Development Strategy 2011 2020; Considering the Minster of Health’s request, DECIDED: Article 1. “The National Nutrition Strategy for 20112020, with a Vision toward 2030” is officially ratified with the following contents: 1. Principles a) Improving nutrition status is the responsibility of each person, including all levels of authority and all sectors. b) Balanced and proper nutrition is essential for achieving comprehensive physical and intellectual development of Vietnamese people and improved quality of life. c) Nutrition activities should involve multiple sectors, under the guidance and leadership of the Party and Government at all levels, with social mobilisation of mass organisations and the general population. Priority should be given to poor, disadvantaged areas and ethnic minority groups, and for mothers and small children. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 1 PRIME MINISTER SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INDEPENDENCE FREEDOM HAPPINESS No: 226 QÐTTg Hanoi, 22 February 2012 2. Objectives a) General objectives By the year 2020, the diet of Vietnamese people will be improved in terms of quantity, balanced in quality, hygienic and safe; Child malnutrition will be further reduced, especially prevalence of stunting, contributing to improved physical status and stature of Vietnamese people; and obesityoverweight will be managed, contributing to the control of nutritionrelated chronic diseases. b) Specific objectives 1. To continue to improve the diet of Vietnamese people, in terms of quantity and quality Indicators: ○ The proportion of households with low energy intake (below 1800 Kcal) will be reduced to 10 % by 2015 and 5 % by 2020. ○ The proportion of households with a balanced diet (Protein:Lipid:Carbohydrate ratio – 14:18:68) will reach 50% by 2015 and 75% by 2020. 2. To improve the nutrition status of mothers and children Indicators: ○ The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency in reproductiveaged women will be reduced to 15% by 2010 and less than 12% by 2020. ○ The rate of low birth weight (infants born less than 2,500g) will be reduced to under 10% prevalence by 2015 and less than 8% by 2020. ○ The rate of stunting in children under 5 years old will be reduced to 26% by 2015, and to 23% by 2020. ○ The prevalence of underweight among children under 5 years old will be reduced to 15% by 2015 and to 12.5% by 2020. ○ By 2020, the average height of children under 5 will increase by 1.5 – 2cm in both boys and girls; and height in adolescents by sex will increase by 11.5 cm compared with the averages from 2010. ○ The prevalence of overweight in children under 5 will be less than 5% in rural areas and less than 10% among urban populations by 2015, and will be maintained at the same rate by 2020. National nutrition stategy 2 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 3. To improve micronutrient status Indicators: ○ The prevalence of children under five with low serum vitamin A (
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The effect of the summer doldrums on earnings announcement returns and ERCs

THE EFFECT OF THE SUMMER DOLDRUMS ON EARNINGS ANNOUNCEMENT RETURNS AND ERCS

... price and/ or volume reaction is affected by the timing of the earnings announcement, such as the day of the week of the announcement (Dellavigna and Pollet 2009) or the time of day of the announcement. .. on the relative summer absence of noise traders and its effect on earnings announcement price reactions and earnings response coefficients (ERC’s), or the market price reaction to a unit of earnings. .. primarily on the characteristics of the audience of investors for the announcement The differential beliefs and behavior of these investors can help dictate the nature of the market response to the announcement
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REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN EAST ASIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN EAST ASIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern and gauge the progress of regional integration in East Asia from a politicaleconomic viewpoint. The focus is on the trade, investment, and financialmonetary aspects of regional cooperation in projecting a viable framework for integration in the coming decade and assessing the prospects for its success in bringing prosperity to East Asia. The study examines the causal factors of regionalism in East Asia and the underlying dynamics of the movement. In this process, differences between Asia’s type of regionalism and that of other regions of the world, in particular Europe and North America, will become apparent. The extent of the region’s heterogeneity is revealed and its implications for regionalism evaluated. The region’s economic and financial diversity has particular implications for the formation of regional institutions in East Asia. The evolution of such institutions as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are examined from the perspective of their objectives and achievements in an effort to assess their contribution to the development of regionalism in East Asia. That examination will determine whether the economic cooperation they promote has brought the desired benefits to their individual members and to the region as a whole
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Detroit diesel DD15 engine workshop manual

Detroit diesel DD15 engine workshop manual

EPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINETABLE OF CONTENTS1 ROCKER COVER1.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF ROCKER COVER AND RELATEDPARTS ...................................................................................................... 131.2 REMOVAL OF THE ROCKER COVER .................................................... 141.3 CLEANING AND INSPECTION OF THE ROCKER COVER ................... 161.4 INSTALLATION OF THE ROCKER COVER ............................................ 172 CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER SHAFTENGINE BRAKE ASSEMBLY2.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CAMSHAFT AND ROCKERSHAFTENGINE BRAKE ASSEMBLY AND RELATED PARTS ............... 232.2 REMOVAL OF CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER SHAFTENGINE BRAKEASSEMBLY .............................................................................................. 272.3 INSPECTION OF THE CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER SHAFTENGINEBRAKE ASSEMBLY ................................................................................. 2152.4 INSTALLATION OF THE CAMSHAFT AND ROCKER SHAFTENGINEBRAKE ASSEMBLY ................................................................................. 2162.5 DD13 EGR COOLER CLEANING PROCEDURE TO REMOVE EXCESSFUEL FROM COOLER AFTER ENGINE BRAKE SOLENOID FAILURE 2262.6 DD15 EGR COOLER CLEANING PROCEDURE TO REMOVE EXCESSFUEL FROM COOLER AFTER ENGINE BRAKE SOLENOID FAILURE 2313 CAMSHAFT HOUSING3.1 REMOVAL OF THE CAMSHAFT HOUSING ........................................... 333.2 INSPECTION OF CAMSHAFT HOUSING ............................................... 383.3 INSTALLATION OF THE CAMSHAFT HOUSING ................................... 394 CAMSHAFT TIMING4.1 CAMSHAFT TIMING VERIFICATION ...................................................... 434.2 TIMING THE CAMSHAFTS WITH THE GEAR TRAIN INSTALLED ........ 465 GEAR TRAIN AND ENGINE TIMING5.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF GEAR TRAIN AND RELATEDPARTS ...................................................................................................... 535.2 ENGINE GEAR TRAIN INSTALLATION AND TIMING ............................ 585.3 CHECKING AND ADJUSTING GEAR LASH WITH CAMSHAFTHOUSING REMOVED ............................................................................. 5166 WATER MANIFOLD6.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF DD15 DD16 WATERMANIFOLD AND RELATED COMPONENTS .......................................... 636.2 REMOVAL OF THE DD15 DD16 WATER MANIFOLD ......................... 656.3 CLEANING AND INSPECTION OF THE DD15 DD16 WATERMANIFOLD ............................................................................................... 676.4 INSTALLATION OF THE DD15 DD16 WATER MANIFOLD ................. 68All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION iEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE6.5 DD13 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION COOLER WATER MANIFOLDASSEMBLY .............................................................................................. 6107 COLD BOOST PIPE (CHARGE AIR PIPE)7.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF COLD BOOST PIPE (CHARGEAIR PIPE) AND RELATED COMPONENTS ............................................ 737.2 REMOVAL OF THE COLD BOOST PIPE (CHARGE AIR PIPE) ............. 747.3 INSPECTION OF COLD BOOST PIPE (CHARGE AIR PIPE) ................ 757.4 INSTALLATION OF THE COLD BOOST PIPE (CHARGE AIR PIPE) .... 768 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD8.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD ANDRELATED PARTS .................................................................................... 838.2 REMOVAL OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD .................................................. 868.3 CLEANING OF THE AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD ........................................ 878.4 INSPECTION OF THE AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD ..................................... 888.5 INSTALLATION OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD .......................................... 899 DD13 TURBOCHARGER9.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE DD13 TURBOCHARGERAND RELATED PARTS ............................................................................ 939.2 REMOVAL OF THE DD13 TURBOCHARGER ........................................ 959.3 INSPECTION OF THE DD13 TURBOCHARGER ................................... 999.4 INSTALLATION OF THE DD13 TURBOCHARGER ................................ 9109.5 EGR COOLER CLEANING PROCEDURE TO REMOVE EXCESS FUELFROM COOLER AFTER DD13 TURBOCHARGER FAILURE ................ 91210 DD13 WASTEGATE SOLENOID10.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE DD13 WASTEGATESOLENOID ............................................................................................... 10310.2 REMOVAL OF THE DD13 WASTEGATE SOLENOID ............................. 10410.3 INSTALLATION OF THE DD13 WASTEGATE SOLENOID ..................... 10611 DD15 TURBOCHARGER11.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF TURBOCHARGER ANDRELATED PARTS .................................................................................... 11311.2 REMOVAL OF DD15 TURBOCHARGER ................................................ 11511.3 INSPECTION OF DD15 TURBOCHARGER ........................................... 11711.4 INSTALLATION OF DD15 TURBOCHARGER ........................................ 11811.5 EGR COOLER CLEANING PROCEDURE TO REMOVE EXCESS OILFROM EGR COOLER AFTER DD15 TURBOCHARGER FAILURE ....... 111012 DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE12.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINEAND RELATED PARTS ............................................................................ 12312.2 REMOVAL OF DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE ..................................... 12512.3 INSPECTION OF THE DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE ........................ 12612.4 INSTALLATION OF DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE ............................. 127All information subject to change without notice.ii DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE13 DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE GEAR BOX13.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINEGEAR BOX AND RELATED PARTS ........................................................ 13313.2 REMOVAL OF THE DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE GEAR BOX ......... 13513.3 INSPECTION OF DD15 AXIAL POWER TURBINE GEAR BOX ............. 13613.4 INSTALLATION OF THE AXIAL POWER TURBINE GEAR BOX ............ 13714 CYLINDER HEAD14.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CYLINDER HEAD AND RELATEDPARTS ...................................................................................................... 14314.2 REMOVAL OF THE DD13 CYLINDER HEAD ......................................... 141014.3 INSTALLATION OF THE DD13 CYLINDER HEAD .................................. 141214.4 REMOVAL OF THE DD15 CYLINDER HEAD ......................................... 141514.5 CLEANING OF THE CYLINDER HEAD .................................................. 141714.6 ASSEMBLY OF CYLINDER HEAD .......................................................... 141814.7 INSTALLATION OF THE DD15 CYLINDER HEAD .................................. 141914.8 REMOVAL OF VALVE SPRING (CYLINDER HEAD INSTALLED) .......... 142214.9 REMOVAL OF THE VALVE SPRING (CYLINDER HEAD REMOVED) ... 142414.10 REMOVAL OF INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES ................................... 142514.11 CLEANING OF VALVES AND RELATED PARTS .................................... 142614.12 INSPECTION OF VALVE SPRINGS ........................................................ 142714.13 INSPECTION OF VALVE ......................................................................... 142814.14 INSTALLATION OF VALVE, SPRING, SEAL AND VALVE CAP .............. 142914.15 VALVE LASH ADJUSTMENTS ................................................................ 143114.16 SETTING THE ENGINE BRAKE LASH ................................................... 143315 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY15.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF PISTON AND CONNECTINGROD AND RELATED PARTS ................................................................... 15315.2 REMOVAL OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY ............. 15515.3 DISASSEMBLY OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY ..... 15715.4 INSPECTION OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY ........ 15815.5 ASSEMBLY OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY ........... 15915.6 INSTALLATION OF PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY ..... 151116 CYLINDER LINER16.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CYLINDER LINER ANDRELATED PARTS .................................................................................... 16316.2 REMOVAL OF CYLINDER LINER ........................................................... 16416.3 INSPECTION OF CYLINDER LINER ...................................................... 16516.4 CLEANING OF THE CYLINDER LINER .................................................. 16716.5 INSTALLATION OF THE CYLINDER LINER ........................................... 16817 CRANKSHAFT17.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CRANKSHAFT AND RELATEDPARTS ...................................................................................................... 17317.2 REMOVAL OF CRANKSHAFT ................................................................. 17617.3 INSPECTION OF THE CRANKSHAFT AND RELATED PARTS ............. 17917.4 INSTALLATION OF CRANKSHAFT ......................................................... 1710All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION iiiEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE17.5 REMOVAL OF CRANKSHAFT REAR OIL SEAL ..................................... 171417.6 INSTALLATION OF THE REAR OIL SEAL .............................................. 171517.7 REMOVAL OF THE CRANKSHAFT FRONT OIL SEAL .......................... 171717.8 INSTALLATION OF THE CRANKSHAFT FRONT OIL SEAL .................. 171818 LUBRICATION SYSTEM18.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEMAND RELATED COMPONENTS .............................................................. 18319 OIL PAN19.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF OIL PAN AND RELATEDCOMPONENTS ....................................................................................... 19319.2 REMOVAL OF OIL PAN ........................................................................... 19419.3 CLEANING OF OIL PAN .......................................................................... 19519.4 INSPECTION OF OIL PAN ...................................................................... 19619.5 REMOVAL OF THREADED INSERT — PLASTIC OIL PAN ONLY ......... 19719.6 INSTALLATION OF THREADED INSERT — PLASTIC OIL PAN ONLY . 19819.7 INSTALLATION OF OIL PAN ................................................................... 19920 OIL DIPSTICK TUBE20.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF OIL DIPSTICK TUBE ANDRELATED COMPONENTS ...................................................................... 20320.2 REMOVAL OF THE OIL DIPSTICK TUBE ............................................... 20420.3 INSTALLATION OF THE OIL DIPSTICK TUBE ....................................... 20521 OIL PUMP21.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF OIL PUMP AND RELATEDCOMPONENTS ....................................................................................... 21321.2 REMOVAL OF THE OIL PUMP, OIL SUCTION MANIFOLD, AND OILLINES ....................................................................................................... 21421.3 INSPECTION OF THE OIL PUMP, OIL SUCTION MANIFOLD, AND OILLINES ....................................................................................................... 21521.4 INSTALLATION OF THE OIL PUMP, OIL SUCTION MANIFOLD, ANDOIL LINES ................................................................................................ 21622 CRANKCASE BREATHER22.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CRANKCASE BREATHER ........ 22322.2 REMOVAL OF THE CRANKCASE BREATHER ...................................... 22522.3 INSPECTION OF THE CRANKCASE BREATHER ................................. 22622.4 INSTALLATION OF THE CRANKCASE BREATHER .............................. 22723 OIL FILTER23.1 REPLACEMENT OF THE OIL FILTER .................................................... 23324 OIL SAMPLE VALVE24.1 REPLACING OIL PLUG WITH OIL SAMPLE VALVE .............................. 24324.2 REMOVAL OF OIL SAMPLE VALVE ....................................................... 24424.3 INSTALLATION OF OIL SAMPLE VALVE ................................................ 24525 OIL FILLER NECK25.1 REMOVAL OF THE OIL FILLER NECK ................................................... 253All information subject to change without notice.iv DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE25.2 INSTALLATION OF THE OIL FILLER NECK ........................................... 25426 OIL COOLANT MODULE26.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE OIL COOLANT MODULE .. 26326.2 REMOVAL OF THE OIL COOLANT MODULE ........................................ 26526.3 INSTALLATION OF THE OIL COOLANT MODULE ................................ 26726.4 REMOVAL OF THE OIL THERMOSTAT .................................................. 26926.5 INSTALLATION OF THE OIL THERMOSTAT .......................................... 261127 PRIMING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM27.1 PRIMING THE ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM .................................. 27328 COOLING SYSTEM28.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF COOLING SYSTEM ANDRELATED COMPONENTS ...................................................................... 28329 ENGINE WATER PUMP29.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF ENGINE WATER PUMP ............ 29329.2 REMOVAL OF THE WATER PUMP ......................................................... 29429.3 INSPECTION OF THE WATER PUMP .................................................... 29529.4 INSTALLATION OF THE WATER PUMP ................................................. 29630 COOLANT THERMOSTAT30.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF COOLANT THERMOSTAT ........ 30330.2 REMOVAL OF COOLANT THERMOSTAT AND SEAL ........................... 30530.3 INSPECTION OF COOLANT THERMOSTAT AND SEAL ....................... 30630.4 INSTALLATION OF COOLANT THERMOSTAT AND SEAL .................... 30731 COOLANT FILTER31.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF COOLANT FILTER ..................... 31331.2 REMOVAL OF THE COOLANT FILTER .................................................. 31431.3 INSTALLATION OF THE COOLANT FILTER .......................................... 31532 COOLANT FILTER SERVICE MODULE32.1 REMOVAL OF COOLANT FILTER SERVICE MODULE ......................... 32332.2 INSTALLATION OF COOLANT FILTER SERVICE MODULE .................. 32433 COOLANT INLET ELBOW33.1 REMOVAL OF THE COOLANT INLET ELBOW ...................................... 33333.2 INSTALLATION OF THE COOLANT INLET ELBOW .............................. 33434 FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING34.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF FLYWHEEL, FLYWHEELHOUSING AND RELATED PARTS .......................................................... 34334.2 REMOVAL OF FLYWHEEL HOUSING .................................................... 34634.3 INSTALLATION OF FLYWHEEL HOUSING ............................................ 34734.4 REMOVAL OF THE FLYWHEEL .............................................................. 34934.5 INSPECTION OF FLYWHEEL ................................................................. 341034.6 INSTALLATION OF FLYWHEEL .............................................................. 341134.7 INSPECTION OF FLYWHEEL HOUSING AND REAR OIL SEAL AREAOF CRANKSHAFT ................................................................................... 341234.8 REMOVAL OF RING GEAR ..................................................................... 3413All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION vEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE34.9 INSTALLATION OF RING GEAR ............................................................. 341435 FRONT ENGINE MOUNTRADIATOR SUPPORT35.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF FRONT ENGINEMOUNTRADIATOR SUPPORT AND RELATED PARTS ........................ 35335.2 REMOVAL OF THE FRONT ENGINE MOUNTRADIATOR SUPPORT .. 35435.3 INSPECTION OF THE FRONT ENGINE MOUNTRADIATORSUPPORT ................................................................................................ 35535.4 INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT ENGINE MOUNTRADIATORSUPPORT ................................................................................................ 35636 VIBRATION DAMPER36.1 REMOVAL OF THE VIBRATION DAMPER ............................................. 36336.2 INSTALLATION OF THE VIBRATION DAMPER ..................................... 36437 FRONT ENGINE COVER37.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE FRONT ENGINE COVER .. 37337.2 REMOVAL OF THE FRONT ENGINE COVER ........................................ 37437.3 INSPECTION OF THE FRONT ENGINE COVER ................................... 37537.4 INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT ENGINE COVER ................................ 37638 ENGINE LIFTER BRACKETS38.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF ENGINE LIFTER BRACKETSAND RELATED PARTS ............................................................................ 38338.2 REMOVAL OF THE FRONT ENGINE LIFTER BRACKET WITHOUTFRONT ENGINE POWER TAKEOFF ..................................................... 38838.3 REMOVAL OF THE FRONT ENGINE LIFTER BRACKET WITH FRONTENGINE POWER TAKEOFF .................................................................. 38938.4 REMOVAL OF THE REAR ENGINE LIFTER BRACKETS ...................... 381038.5 INSPECTION OF THE ENGINE LIFTER BRACKETS ............................ 381138.6 INSTALLATION OF THE REAR ENGINE LIFTER BRACKETS .............. 381238.7 INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT ENGINE LIFTER BRACKET WITHOUTFRONT ENGINE POWER TAKEOFF ..................................................... 381338.8 INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT ENGINE LIFTER BRACKET WITHFRONT ENGINE POWER TAKEOFF ..................................................... 381439 BELT DRIVE TENSIONER SYSTEM39.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF BELT DRIVE TENSIONER ANDRELATED PARTS .................................................................................... 39339.2 REMOVAL OF THE BELT TENSIONER .................................................. 39539.3 INSTALLATION OF THE BELT TENSIONER .......................................... 39639.4 REMOVAL OF THE IDLER PULLEY AND IDLER PULLEY BRACKET .. 39739.5 INSTALLATION OF THE IDLER PULLEY AND IDLER PULLEYBRACKET ................................................................................................ 39839.6 REMOVAL OF NONBRACKETED IDLER PULLEY .............................. 39939.7 INSTALLATION OF NONBRACKETED IDLER PULLEY ........................ 391039.8 REMOVAL OF THE ACCESSORY MOUNTING BRACKET .................... 391139.9 INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORY MOUNTING BRACKET ............ 3912All information subject to change without notice.vi DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE40 POLYVBELTS40.1 REMOVAL OF THE POLYVBELTS ....................................................... 40340.2 INSPECTION OF THE POLYVBELTS ................................................... 40640.3 INSTALLATION OF THE POLYVBELTS ................................................ 40941 AIR COMPRESSOR41.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF THE AIR COMPRESSOR .......... 41341.2 REMOVAL OF THE AIR COMPRESSOR ................................................ 41541.3 INSPECTION OF THE AIR COMPRESSOR ........................................... 41641.4 INSTALLATION OF THE AIR COMPRESSOR ........................................ 41842 CYLINDER BLOCK42.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF CYLINDER BLOCK ANDRELATED PARTS .................................................................................... 42342.2 REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY OF ENGINE FROM THE VEHICLE .... 42942.3 CLEANING THE CYLINDER BLOCK ...................................................... 421242.4 REASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF CYLINDER BLOCK ................ 4216All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION viiEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINEAll information subject to change without notice.viii DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION1 ROCKER COVERSection Page1.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF ROCKER COVER AND RELATEDPARTS ...................................................................................................... 131.2 REMOVAL OF THE ROCKER COVER .................................................... 141.3 CLEANING AND INSPECTION OF THE ROCKER COVER ................... 161.4 INSTALLATION OF THE ROCKER COVER ............................................ 17All information subject to change without notice.12 DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE1.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION OF ROCKER COVER AND RELATEDPARTSThe rocker cover (2) is made of an aluminum or plastic material and uses an elastomer seal (1)which completely encloses the valve operating mechanism including the overhead camshafts,brake assemblies and the injector harness.1. Gasket 4. Air Cleaner Bracket2. Rocker Cover 5. Stud (Bolt)3. BoltFigure 11 Rocker CoverAll information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION 131.2 REMOVAL OF THE ROCKER COVER1.2 REMOVAL OF THE ROCKER COVERRemove as follows:1. Steam clean the engine.2. Remove bolts (1) or nuts (if equipped) from the two air filter housing brackets (2) andremove housings from the rocker cover.All information subject to change without notice.14 DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE3. Loosen the bolts (1) or stud bolts (2) (if equipped) and isolators (3); remove rocker cover.NOTE:Mark the location of the stud bolts. The stud bolts must be replaced in their originallocation during installation.4. Remove rocker cover gasket from the rocker cover.All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION 151.3 CLEANING AND INSPECTION OF THE ROCKER COVER1.3 CLEANING AND INSPECTION OF THE ROCKER COVERClean as follows:1. Clean cover in clean solvent or fuel.EYE INJURYTo avoid injury from flying debris when using compressedair, wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safetygoggles) and do not exceed 276 kPa (40 psi) air pressure.2. Blow dry with compressed air.3. Check the rocker cover, breather passage and seal for damage. Replace as necessary.4. Inspect the bolts. Replace if damaged.All information subject to change without notice.16 DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATIONEPA0710 DD PLATFORM WORKSHOP MANUAL ENGINE1.4 INSTALLATION OF THE ROCKER COVERInstall as follows:1. Install rocker cover gasket into groove in rocker cover.2. Install bolts (1) or stud bolts (2) (if removed) and isolators (3) into rocker cover.3. Install rocker cover onto camshaft housing.4. Finger tighten all bolts (1) and stud bolts; then torque to 20 N·m (14 lb·ft).All information subject to change without notice.DDCSVCMAN0081 2010 Copyright © 2010 DETROIT DIESEL CORPORATION
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