THICK LINE AND INDIVIDUAL MODELS THIN LINES UNDER SCENARIOS RCP2 6 AND RCP8 5 FOR THE MONTHS OF JJA

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "THICK LINE AND INDIVIDUAL MODELS THIN LINES UNDER SCENARIOS RCP2 6 AND RCP8 5 FOR THE MONTHS OF JJA":

Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt affected soil

Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt affected soil

The present investigation entitled “Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt affected soil” comprised of 7 lines and 3 testers recommended for sodic soil. Crosses were made in “line x tester mating design. Thus 21 crosses (F1‟s) were produced during 2015. All crosses along with their 10 parents and one check (Usar Dhan-3) were evaluated in RBD with three replications during Kharif 2016.

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USING SINCE AND FOR

USING SINCE AND FOR

Using since and forThe words since and for can be used as conjunctions and prepositions. When they are used as conjunctions,they combine two clauses. Note that since is a subordinating conjunction whereas for is a coordinatingconjunction.When they are used as prepositions, they usually indicate time.Since is used with the starting point of action. For shows duration.Combine the following sentences using since or for.1. I saw him last month. I haven’t seen him afterwards.2. It was a public holiday. Schools and colleges remained closed that day.3. I like him very much. So I will help him.4. The table is made of mahogany wood. It is expensive.5. It is raining. We can’t go out now.6. It last rained three months ago.7. I last visited my parents 2 years ago.8. Something fell. I heard a noise.Answers1. I haven’t seen him since last month.2. Since it was a public holiday, schools and colleges remained closed.3. Since I like him very much, I will help him.4. Since the table is made of mahogany wood, it is expensive.5. Since it is raining, we can’t go out now.6. It is three months since it rained.7. It is 2 years since I visited my parents.8. Something fell for I heard a noise.Stay on top of your writing! Download our grammar guide from www.englishgrammar.org to stay up-to-date.Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
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SACH VAT LY 01

SACH VAT LY 01

The Analysis Model approach we focus on in this revision lays out a standard set of situations that appear in mostphysics problems. These situations are based on an entity in one of four simplification models: particle, system,rigid object, and wave. Once the simplification model is identified, the student thinks about what the entity isdoing or how it interacts with its environment. This leads the student to identify a particular Analysis Model for theproblem. For example, if an object is falling, the object is recognized as a particle experiencing an acceleration dueto gravity that is constant. The student has learned that the Analysis Model of a particle under constant accelerationdescribes this situation. Furthermore, this model has a small number of equations associated with it for use in starting problems, the kinematic equations presented in Chapter 2. Therefore, an understanding of the situation has ledto an Analysis Model, which then identifies a very small number of equations to start the problem, rather than themyriad equations that students see in the text. In this way, the use of Analysis Models leads the student to identifythe fundamental principle. As the student gains more experience, he or she will lean less on the Analysis Modelapproach and begin to identify fundamental principles directly. To better integrate the Analysis Model approach for this edition, Analysis Model descriptive boxes have beenadded at the end of any section that introduces a new Analysis Model. This feature recaps the Analysis Model introduced in the section and provides examples of the types of problems that a student could solve using the AnalysisModel. These boxes function as a “refresher” before students see the Analysis Models in use in the worked examplesfor a given section. Worked examples in the text that utilize Analysis Models are now designated with an AM icon for ease of reference. The solutions of these examples integrate the Analysis Model approach to problem
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Metal composites behaviour under biaxial stresses

Metal composites behaviour under biaxial stresses

For this study, different volume fraction (vol.%) of particulate alumina (Al2O3) reinforced aluminium alloy (Al 6061) with 5 vol.%, 15 vol.% and 25 vol.% are produced by powder metallurgy method. These samples were subjected to biaxial stresses in order to investigate the behaviour of the metal matrix composites (MMCs). Microstructure analysis on the individual sample before and after loading was performed under scanning electron microscopy. The small particles of 2 µm in size have exhibited strong interfacial bonding with the matrix. The particles of 5 µm in size have shown fractures and debonding interface. Large particles of above 20 µm in size have revealed severe fractures and particles pulled out. Behavior of the MMC was explained by relating the microstructures and displacement directions of the undeformed and deformed samples. Some understandings on the behaviour of the MMCs with different vol.% of Al2O3 due to biaxial stresses have been established.
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VOCABULARY 1 LEARNING AND DOING

VOCABULARY 1 LEARNING AND DOING

1. My German teachers says I’ve made a lot of progress this term!2. What time are you taking the French exam tomorrow?3. I’m not in favor of giving students lots of homework each night.4. Being able to drive a car is a very useful skill.5. Have we got to learn all these irregular verbs by heart?6. Some languages like Russian for instance, don’t have words for ‘an”, “a” andthe”.7. I got a very good mark in my geography test.8. Many people hate learning phrasal verbs, but in fact they’re not that difficult.Exercise 9. Write a phrasal verb in the correct form to replace the words in bold. The first letter of thefirst word is given to help you.1. Simon rubbed out the wrong answer and wrote the right one. (removed with a rubber)2. Why did you rip up that piece of paper? (tear into pieces)3. If you make a mistake, just cross it out. (draw a line through)4. You should look up words you don’t know in a dictionary. (find information about)5. Carol, will you read out your poem to the class, please? (say out loud)6. Our teacher pointed out that we only had five minutes left. (said)7. Have you all written down what the homework is? (made a note of)Exercise 10. Complete by changing the form of the word in capitals.1. What’s the name of Dave’s driving instructor? (instruct)2. Dictionaries and encyclopaedias are examples of reference books. (refer)3. I’ve only been learning Arabic for a few months, so I’m still a beginner. (begin)4. In maths, you have to learn to do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. (divide)5. Three of your answers were incorrect, so you got 17 out of 20.(correct)6. Are you really going to take part in the singing competition? I admire your bravery. (brave)7. I think every child should get a good education. (educate)8. There’s a memorial to Albert Einstein in the town square. (memory)9. I want complete silence, so no talking at all! (silent)10. This maths problem is too difficult for you, so I’ll simplify it a little. (simple)Exercise 11. Write one word in each gap.CHEATING
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30078 BACK TO SCHOOL

30078 BACK TO SCHOOL

KEY:2. Find and underline the words referring toschool things:bookapenugluercrayontpencilaerasertnotepadwrulerbsharpenermcalculatorncompasslscissorsbtriangledstaplerwrulerfpaintsgbrushmcliphabacusknotebooklschoolbagfmapdbustimetablekmobileflunchboxwpencilcasendiarykcolouredpencilsmpapermscheduledfgt4. Guess, choose and write the things:1. You need it to write in your copy-book. A pen2. They are thick and you put them into your bag.Books3. You draw direct lines with the help of it. Aruler4. You cut paper with them. Scissors5. You paint pictures with it. Paints and brush6. You use it to add numbers. A Calculator7. You can draw circles with it. A compass8. You use it to make your pencils sharp. Asharpener9. You can connect pages with this device. Astapler10. You use it to erase letters or pencil drawings.
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Determining combining ability in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

Determining combining ability in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)

In the present investigation, all together 32 hybrids were made from crosses of four cytoplasmic male sterile lines and eight diverse testers in a line x tester matting design. These hybrids were evaluated during Rabi 2014-15 at TCA, Dholi Farm. The mean sum of squares for parents and crosses, were found significant for all traits except seed filling per cent. The significance of variance due to parents Vs crosses indicated the presence of heterosis in hybrids for all characters except days to 50% flowering and harvest index.

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autobiographical time

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL TIME

Recently, a number of studies have drawn attention to the narrative fabric of autobiographical identity construction. In this process, time plays a pivotal role, both as a structure and object of construction. In telling our lives, we deal not only with the classical time modalities of past, present, and future, but also with the different temporal orders of natural, cultural, and individual processes. We find all forms of linguistic constructions of time, such as tense systems, tropes, anachronies, and the use of specific narrative genres. In this paper, I shall argue that in the process of autobiographical identity construction a particular synthesis of cultural and individual orders of time takes place. The result is autobiographical time, the time of one’s life. For this synthesis the form of narrative is not only the most adequate form, it is the only form in which this most complex mode of human time construction can exist at all. Discussing various case studies, I shall distinguish six different narrative models of autobiographical time: the linear, circular, cyclical, spiral, static, and fragmentary model. To study how people make use of these models in their autobiographical narratives is to investigate how we become immersed into the fabric of culture and, at the same time, express our unique individuality
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Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status and offspring allergic disease up to the age of 18 months

MATERNAL POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID STATUS AND OFFSPRING ALLERGIC DISEASE UP TO THE AGE OF 18 MONTHS

... population to investigate allergic diseases at a younger age In this 43 study, we investigated the relationship between maternal PUFA status and 44 potential allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months. .. anthropometry 547 and health outcomes, were collected through examination at home at weeks, 548 months and every months thereafter until 15 months of age At the age of 18 549 months, the mothers and infants... allergic diseases Figure 1-2 Incidences of different types of allergic diseases by age Figure 1-3 The biosynthesis of n−6 and n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Figure 1-4 Generalized pathway for the
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Cách paraphrase Tiếng Anh

Cách paraphrase Tiếng Anh

CÁC TỪ THƯỜNG SỬ DỤNG ĐỂ PARAPHRASE 1. graph = line graph 2. chart = bar chart pie charttableflow chart 3. shows = illustrates (or compares if the graph is comparing) 4. proportion = percentage 5. give information about = show data about 6. the number of = the figure for 7. the proportion of = the figure for 8. people in the USA = Americans 9. from 1999 to 2009 = between 1999 and 2009 10.from 1999 to 2009 = over a period of 10 yearsover a 10 yearperiod

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MỘT SỐ BÀI TẬP TỪ VỰNG TIẾNG ANH

MỘT SỐ BÀI TẬP TỪ VỰNG TIẾNG ANH

Một số bài tập Từ vựng tiếng Anhtheo chủ đề + Đáp ánChủ đề: Education PRACTICE TEST 1:I. Match the word in column A with its meaning in column BAB1. education2. Literacy3. skill4. knowledge5. curriculum6. qualification7. educationalist8. academic9. program10. profession a, expert in educational methodsb, ability to do something wellc, occupation that requires advanced education and trainingd, professional at a college universitye, the material is used to teach at school, collegef, subjects included in a course of study or taught at a particular school, college g, training and instruction designed to give knowledge and developing skill (for children at school, college), etc.h, qualifying or becoming qualifiedi, ability to read and writej, understanding 1._____ 2._____3._____4._____5._____6._____ 7._____8._____9._____10.____II. Fill in the blanks using the words provideddevelopmenttargetdesignedset outcommittedchildrenrepresentativesupportqualityencourageThe Government is (1)………………. to high quality nursery education, child care and family (2) ……………….. By April 1998, all local authorities in England and Wales will have an early year (3) ……………….plan (EYDP) drawn up in discussion will locally (4) ………………. Early year development partnership. There will (5) ……………….how every fouryearold will have access to a free, high (6) ………………. nursery place as well as setting (7) ………………. for the expansion of places for threeyearold. EYDP will also (8) ……………….the integration of other earlyyears services, such as child care,(9) ……………….to meet the needs of parents and (10) ………………..III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters in parentheses1. (EDUCATE) ……………….provision in England, Wales and Scotland is part of the local government structure. 2. Local authorities are responsible for the (DELIVER) ……………….of education to the majority of children between the ages of five and sixteen. 3. Special schools are provided by local Education Authorities for certain children with (EDUCATE) ……………….need. 4. The Government’s concern is to (SURE) ……………….the best possible quality of teaching and learning in every school. 5. Each school provides students with a (BROAD) ……………….of knowledge, skills and values in the key learning areas. 6. International students have met (ADMIT) ……………….requirement for Oklahoma State University. 7. In the past school years, the preschool sector has been more and more (STABLE) and developed. 8. Curtin Business School is one of the largest and most (INNOVATE) ……………….business school in the region. 9. Curtin has one of the largest and most (COMPREHEND) ……………….health science facilities in Australia and the Asia Pacific region. 10. All school will be changed to improve and must take (RESPONSIBLE) ……………….for raising their own standards. IV. Read the following text carefully and choose the best answer for each numdered blank by circling the letter A, B, C, or D. As a (1) ………………. For compulsory schooling (generally from age 5) the UK aims to provide high quality (2) ………………. For all 3 and 4year olds whose parents want it. Local Authority are (3) ……………….to work in partnership with the (4) and private sectors to extend provision, secure high, (5) ……………….standards and ensure that parents’ needs for childcare alongside early education are (6) ……………….. In England, a network of early (7) ……………….centers has been established to spread good (8) ………………. In teaching and learning. In Scotland, preschools establishments work to a national curriculum framework for children in their preschool year. In the UK, rigorous (9) ………………. Of schools by external organizations is now accompanied by and increasing emphasis on (10) ………………. Selfevaluation by schools themselves. Reports on individual schools are made available to the public. 1. A. prepareB. PreparingC. Preparation D. Preparatory2. A. education B. teaching C. training D. developing3. A. Courage B. encourage C. encouraged D. courageous4. A. volunteerB. Voluntary C. involuntaryD. volunteering 5. A. qualify B. qualified C. qualification D. quality6. A metB. meeting C. seeD. seen7. A. establishing B. established C. setD. setting8. A. aimB. practice C. ideaD. value9. A. inspectB. inspectingC. inspection D. inspector 10. A. systematic B. Precise C. exact D. accurate PRACTICE TEST 2I. Match the words in column A with its meaning in column B.AB1. approach 2. intellect3. professional4. methodology 5. improvement 6. experience 7. application8. occupation9. motivate10. stimulate a, action of a process of improvingb, knowledge or skill acquired from seeing and doing thingsc. employmentd, of or belonging to a profession e, sets of methods used in doing something f, way of dealing with teachingg, power of the mind to reason and acquire knowledge h, act of putting a theory, discovery i, inspire j, arouse the interest and excitement 1…… 2…… 3….. 4…… 5…… 6……. 7……. 8…….. 9……. 10…….II. Fill in the blanks using the words provided. Reportsimprovement comprehensive improve StandardsschoolsfailingarrangementresponsibilityinspectedIn England, the Office for (1) ………………in Education (OFSTED) has (2) ………………for school inspection and inspection of Local Education Authorities. All State schools are (3) ……………… every 6 years or more frequently where (4) ………………are identified as weak or (5) ……………… Underperforming schools must implement a program or (6)……………… In England only, schools unable to (7) ………………are closed. Where places are needed a new “fresh start” school is opened. Broadly similar (8) ……………… are in place in Wales and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, HM (Her Majesty’s) Inspectors of Schools are responsible for (9) ………………inspection program and publish Summary (10) ……………… on standards every three years. III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters in parentheses. 1. Primary responsibility for maintaining the standards and (REPUTE) ………………of higher education rests with the academy community. 2. Training is usually aimed at providing skills and knowledge (APPLY) ……………… to a particular job or occupation. 3. The qualifications each offer the prospect of (PROGRESS) ………………into higher education at work. 4. The curriculum is based on national guidance to schools, which includes national (ATTAIN) ……………… targets. 5. The major obstacle to the (IMPLEMENT) ……………… of the communicative approach is class size and the teaching schedule. 6. Teachers and students focus on (METHODOLOGY) ………………issues and the development of research techniques. 7. Students are able to focus on one of areas of (SPECIALIZE) ………………by choosing their major and electives in many related areas. 8. Central to (PEDAGOGY) ………………practices in Vietnam is the traditional view of the teacherstudent relationship. 9. Schools offer a wide choice of subjects to suit every student’s learning needs and (ABLE) ………………10. Teachers are seen as (FACILITATE) ………………, helpers and resources. IV. Read the following text carefully and choose the best answer for each numbered blank by circling the letter A, B, C, or D. Schools are access to rich sources of data about 1) ……………and cannot set targets for (2) ………………against objective standards, UK systems for (3) ……………… the quality of schools and for school (4) ………………planning are of considerable (5) ………………internationally. For example, the Universities of London and Strathclyde have undertaken an (6)………………study of improving school (7) ………………through a range of (8) …………to selfevaluation. In Scotland, (9) ……………… selfevaluation os taking root in schools based on 33 performances indicators in the HMI (Her majesty’s Inspectors) (10) ……………… How Good is Our School? 1. A, performance B, performing C, reformative D, perform2. A, developingB, developmentC, improvementD, improving3. A, evaluatingB, evaluation C, assessing D, Assessment4. A, developing B, developmentC, enhancing D, enhancement 5. A, interest B, interesting C, surprise D, surprising6. A, extend B, extending C, extensiveD, extension7. A, influent B, influenceC, effective D, effectiveness8. A, methodsB, approaches C, techniques D, ways9. A, mainB, chief C, systematic D, important10. A, publication B, bookC, journal D, newspaperPRACTICE TEST 3I. Match the word in column A with its meaning in column BAB1. motivational2. facility 3. interaction4. communication5. accuracy 6. comprehensive 7 assessment8. evaluation9. accreditation 10. flexibility a, precision or exactnessb, that can be understood fullyc, of or belonging to stimulating the interestd, the act of willing and able to change according to different circumstancese, equipment or aidsf, certifying of a prescribed qualityg, assessment, forming an idea of the valueh, evaluation of opinioni, act of communicating j, cooperation between somebody something 1…… 2…… 3….. 4…… 5…… 6……. 7……. 8…….. 9……. 10…….II. Fill in the blanks using the words provided. administration expertisedevolved assurancemonitoringqualifications regulates national partnership frameworkThe UK school system is highly (1) ……………… State schools manage their own staff and budgets. LEAs (Local Education Authorities) operate in (2) ………………with their local schools and finance them through a fair funding formula. Government (3) ………………thee whole system, through organizing (4) ………………inspection systems, arrangements for (5) ………………and curriculum design and quality (6) ………………of initial teacher training. In this (7) ………………, UK schools have developed considerable (8) ……………… in resources management and LEAs have expertise in qualityassured (9) ………………of their local schools. Several LEAs have well established links with regional (10) ………………internationally. III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters in parentheses. 1. Teachers create activities that engage students in meaningful (INTERACT) ………………2. The (COMMUNICATE) ……………… approach has focused us to reexamine not only how we elicit student talk, but also how we respond to it. 3. The (EMPHASIZE) ……………… in language teaching and learning is on the communicative nature of language, in new discoveries. 4. (DEVELOP) ……………… students’ communicative oral skills is one of the most important goals in language teaching. 5. Students often exchange ideas and make (CORRECT) ……………… or improvements in a collective composition. 6. Students working with faculty members gain (PRACTICE) ……………… experience and have opportunities to be involved 7. The University has provided (INNOVATIVE) ……………… education since 1998. 8. Many fulltime students draw (ENROLL) ……………… from the United States, Germany, France, Russia, and Australia. 9. The college board is a nonprofit higher education (ASSOCIATE) ……………… that owns the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). 10. To be chosen, students must show (EXCEL) ……………… in mathematics and reading and writing skills. IV. Read the following text carefully and choose the best answer for each numbered blank by circling the letter A, B, C, or D. Accreditation is a system for setting national standards of (1)……………… in education. The US is unique in the world because its (2) ………………system is not administered by the government, but rather by the committees of (3) ……………… and private agencies like the Kiddle State Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Society of Engineers. Before registering to study in any (4) ……………… institution in the US, a student should (5) ……………… certain that the institution is accredited in order to assure that the school has a (6) ……………… standard of organization, instruction, and (7) ………………support. Foreign students should be particularly careful to check an institution’s accreditation because other governments or future (8) ……………… may not recognize a degree earned from a school that has not received accreditation. If a college is (9) ………………, catalogs and brochures will usually indicate the accreditation status. If you are not sure about a certain school, do not hesitate to check its (10) ……………… with an education officer at the nearest US embassy. 1. A, qualifyB, qualified C, qualificationD. quality2. A, accredit B, accrediting C, accredited D, accreditation3. A, educate B, education C, educatorsD, educational4. A, educate B, educational C, educationallyD, educationist5. A, makeB, feelC, thinkD, keep6. A, recognizeB, recognizing C, recognized D, recognition7. A, financial B, financiallyC, financingD, finance8. A, employeeB, employeesC, employerD, employers9. A, accredit B, accrediting C, accreditedD, accreditation10, A, reputeB, disreputeC, reputationD, reputationalPRACTICE TEST 4I. Match the word in column A with its meaning in column BAB1. examination2. adaptable3. competitiveness 4. supervision 5. experienced 6. consultation7. competence8. administration9. theoretical10, satisfaction a, concerned with a theory of a subjectb, having experiencec, supervising or being supervised.d, administratinge, feeling od contentment f, able to adapt oneselfg, act of examining h, consulting or being consultedI, being competentj, having a strong urge to win 1…… 2…… 3….. 4…… 5…… 6……. 7……. 8…….. 9……. 10…….II. Fill in the blanks using the words provided. graduated depending Maintenance incomefeeeducationfinancialinitialbenefitacademic The Government has given an 1 ……………… response and agrees with the National Committee of Inquiry that the cost of higher 2 ……………… should be shared between those who 3 ……………… from it. From the beginning of the 1998 4 ……………… year, the Government plants to introduce a tuition 5 ……………… of £1,000 per year – representing a quarter of the average cost of a course. Tuition will continue to be fee for students from lower 6 ……………… families, but other fulltime students will pay up to £1,000 per year, 7 ……………… on parental income. Loans will not be available for tuition fees. 8 ……………… grans for British students will be phased out. The Government will continue to provide 9 ……………… support, means tested against parental income, but it will be repayable by students when they have 10 ……………… and are in work earning a sufficient level of income. III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters in parentheses. 1. The college has an excellent reputation in academic results and (VOCATION) ……………… education.2. Some researcher have already investigated classroom settings under two (COMPLEMENT) ……………… viewpoints: social interaction and language. 3. The staff are fully (QUALIFY) ……………… professionals, committed to the success of the students. 4. The college emphasize (TOLERANT) ………………, selfesteem and leadership, and promotes informed and responsible decision making. 5. In a supportive, (STIMULATE) ……………… environment students receive coeducational secondary schooling through an extensive and challenging curriculum. 6. Students will find the educational choice which is right for them and that they will have strong (CONSIDER) ……………… to joining the international community of college. 7. Lectures are carefully selected for their technical and linguistic (PROFICIENT) ………………, and their working experience. 8. One possibility for measuring the (AUTHENTIC) ……………… of the lecture’s spoken English is with reference to lecturing styles.9. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a teaching methodology that emphasizes fluency over (ACCURATE) ………………10. (PRACTICE) ……………… and applicability to specific teaching situations are factors of success in educational reform. IV. Read the following text carefully and choose the best answer for each numbered blank by circling the letter A, B, C, or D. The Teacher Training Agency currently 1 ……………… the funding for initial teacher training (ITT). It also 2 ……………… institutions offering ITT courses and acts as a source of information and advice on teaching as a 3 ………………. In Scotland, initial teacher training is 4……………… by the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council. All teachers in England, Wales and Northern Ireland are formally 5 ……………… over a twoyear cycle to assist their 6……………… development and to improve the quality of 7 ……………… for pupils. The Government is currently reviewing the current 8 ……………… arrangements. There is no statutory appraisal in Scotland. However, the Government is 9 ……………… to ensure all education authorities operate affective system of staff 10 ……………… and review. The current appraisal guidelines are being reviewed at the Scottish Office plans to issue new guidelines. 1. A, administer B, administers C, administrativeD, administration2. A, accreditsB, accreditationC, agreesD, agreement3. A, careerB, jobC, occupationD, profession4. A, offered B, given C, fundedD, benefited5. A, appraiseB, appraisingC, appraisalD, appraised 6. A, professor B, professionC, professorshipD, professional7. A, educatingB, education C, educationalD, educator8. A, appraise B, appraising C, appraisalD, appraised 9. A, committed B, agreedC, determinedD, accepted10. A, developB, developmentC, enhanceD, enhancementPRACTICE TEST 5 I. Match the word in column A with its meaning in column BAB1. appreciation2. matriculation3. exemplary4. advocacy5. vocational6. aspiration7. perseverance8. psychology9. proficient10. advancementa, of a strong feeling of concerning the qualificationsb, strong desire or ambitionc, understanding and enjoymentd, action o advancinge, enrolling at a college or universityf, giving of supportg, serving as an exampleh, continued steady effort to achieve an aimI, science or study of the mind and how it functionsj, able to do something in a skilled or an expert way 1…… 2…… 3….. 4…… 5…… 6……. 7……. 8…….. 9……. 10…….II. Fill in the blanks using the words provided. expertiseeducationassessmenttechnologyestablishmentapplicationsprosperityconcentratedresearcherssupportedThe Government believes that a worldclass science base is vital to Britain’s national 1……………… The quality of university research is assessed every four years in a national research 2 ……………… exercise. This should ensure that higher education funds are 3……………… on excellent research departments with proven track records, while still allowing young 4……………… new lines of research to be 5………………Over 40 science, business, and research parks have been set up by higher 6……………… institutions to promote the development and commercial application of advanced 7 ……………… They enable business to have ready access to the research 8 ……………… of university staff.The LINK scheme encourages business and higher education 9……………… to work together on government financed research with potential industrial 10 ………………III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capital letters in parentheses. 1. It is said that (CENTRED) ……………… has been applied successfully to teching practice methodology. 2. TESOL classrooms are considered holistically from (PEDAGOGY) ………………, cultural and psychological perspectives. 3. It is claimed by cognitive psychologists meaning, understanding, and knowing are significant data for (PSYCHOLOGY) ……………… study. 4. The university maintains a modern facility with highly skillful doctors and specialists nursing staff available for (CONSULT) ……………… 5. The (PROGRESS) ……………… of study through levels of Curtin qualifications varies depending on the entry requirements set by the relevant school. 6. We believe in encouraging the language (AQUIRE) ……………… and personal progress of students in an atmosphere of support, openness and understanding. 7. The college provides a (COMPREHEND) ……………… and inclusive curriculum to assist in the realization of each student’s potential.8. At years 11 and 12, emphasis is on breadth of choice and the capacity for all students to satisfy their career and further (EDUCATE) ……………… acquisition. 9. The detailed analysis of classroom (INTERACT) ……………… results from practical activities. 10. Predictive hypotheses produced by researchers or (THEORY) are similarly dependent of classroom practice for their validation and usefulness. IV. Read the following text carefully and choose the best answer for each numbered blank by circling the letter A, B, C, or D. Training is 1 ……………… from a wide range of private and public sector providers and funding structure encourage training providers to be 2……………… to the market. Access to training is available irrespective of age, while developments in open access and 3 ……………… learning enable employers and individuals to meet their training 4……………… in a wide variety of settings.The Government’s main role is to provide guidance and to fund an 5 ……………… framework at national, sectorial and local level in which training 6……………… can be taken. It is also funds workrelated training, especially for young people, unemployed people and people with 7 ……………… or special needs. Similar arrangements are made in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. 8 ……………… is usually aimed at providing skills and knowledge 9……………… to a particular job or occupation. The majority of all workrelated training is provided or paid for by employers for their own 10 ………………1. A, available B, famous C, proud D, educational2. A, responsible B, responsive C, suitable D, relevant3. A, distant B, distanceC, farD, remote4. A,, purposesB, aimsC, needsD, targets5. A, institute B, instituting C, institution D, institutional6. A, decideB, decisiveC, indecisiveD, decisions7. A, employedB, unemployed C, employerD, employee8. A, Training B, EducatingC, EducationD, Development9. A, apply B, appliedC, applicableD, application10. A, employeesB, employersC, employmentD, unemploymentANSWER KEY (ĐÁP ÁN)Practice Test 1I. 1, g. 2, i. 3, b. 4, j. 5, f. 6, h. 7, a.8, d. 9, e. 10, c.II. 1. committed 2. support 3. development 4. representative 5. set out 6. quality 7. target8. encourage9. designed10. childrenIII.1. Educational2. delivery 3. educational4. ensure5. breadth6. admission7. stabilized 8. innovative9, comprehensive 10, responsibilityIV. 1, C. 2, A. 3, C. 4, B. 5, D. 6, A. 7, B.8, B. 9, C. 10, A.Practice Test 2I. 1, f. 2, g. 3, d. 4, e. 5, a. 6, b. 7, h.8, c. 9, i. 10, j.II. 1, Standards2, responsibility3, inspected4, schools5, failing 6, improvement7, improve8, arrangements9, comprehensive10, ReportsIII. 1, reputation 2, applicable 3, progression4, attainment5, implementation 6, methodological 7, specialization8, pedagogical 9, abilities10, facilitatorsIV. 1, A. 2, D. 3, C. 4, B. 5, A. 6, C. 7, D.8, B. 9, C. 10, A.Practice Test 3I. 1, c. 2, e. 3, j. 4, i. 5, a. 6, b. 7, h.8, g. 9, f. 10, d.II. 1, devolved2, partnership 3, regulates4, national5, qualifications6, assurance7, framework 8, expertise9, monitoring10 administration.III. 1, interaction2, communicative3, emphasis4, Developing5, corrections6, practical 7, innovative8, enrollment9, association10, excellence IV. 1, D. 2, D. 3, C. 4, B. 5, A. 6, C. 7, A.8, D. 9, C. 10, C.Practice Test 4.I. 1, g. 2, f. 3, j. 4, c. 5, b. 6, h. 7, i.8, d. 9, a. 10, e.II. 1, initial 2, education3, benefit4, academic5, fee6, income7, depending8, Maintenance9, financial 10, graduatedIII. 1, vocational2, complementary3, qualified4, tolerance5, stimulating6, consideration7, proficiency8, authenticity9, accuracy 10, PracticalityIV. 1, B. 2, A. 3, A. 4, C. 5, D. 6, D. 7, B.8, C. 9, A. 10, B.Practice Test 5I. 1, c. 2, e. 3, g. 4, f. 5, a. 6, b. 7, h.8, i. 9, j. 10, d.II. 1, prosperity 2, assessment3, concentrated4, researchers5, supported 6, education7, technology8, expertise 9, establishments 10, applicationsIII. 1, centredness2, pedagogical3, psychological4, consultation5, progression 6, acquisition 7, comprehensive8, educational9, interactions10, theoristsIV. 1, A. 2, B. 3, B. 4, C. 5, D. 6, D. 7, B.8, A. 9, C. 10, A.
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TOEIC PART 5 TIET 1

TOEIC PART 5 TIET 1

PART 6 Directions: Read the texts below. A word or phrase is missing in some of the sentences. For each empty space in the text, select the best answer to complete the text. Then mark the letter (A), (B), (C), or (D) on your answer sheet. Questions 141143 refer to the following passage. Large companies have set their eyes on the younger _____betting that if you 141. (A) generator (B) generation (C) fragment (D) ingredient can get them early, you might keep them longer. This was clearly acknowledged on Tuesday at the opening of the Paris fashion week, when HS, the junior line of Dolcy Dock, invited 120 students to sit front row and center. The show _____with a beach party of dancing male models, and everyone looked 142. (A) abolished (B) corresponded (C) converted (D) culminated happy. But those interested in _____the future of fashion would he well advised to 143. (A) to design (B) designing (C) designed (D) have designed see Dolby Stones shows later in the week, or attend the opening of Varas photographic exhibit that opens later tomorrow. 141 Large companies have set their eyes on the younger _____betting that if you can get them early, you might keep them longer. (A) generator (B) generation (C) fragment (D) ingredient . B Chọn 1 danh từ có nghĩa phù hợp với ngữ cảnh A. Generator: người khởi xướng, máy phát điện. B. Generation: thế hệ C. Fragment: mảnh vỡ D. Ingredient: nguyên liệu Các công ty lớn đang chú ý tới thế hệ trẻ và đánh cược rằng nếu bạn có được họ càng sớm, bạn có thể giữ họ bên mình càng lâu 142 The show _____with a beach party of dancing male models, and everyone looked happy. (A) abolished (B) corresponded (C) converted (D) culminated C Chọn 1 từ có nghĩa phù hợp với ngữ cảnh A. Abolished: bãi bỏ B. Corresponded: tương ứng C. Converted: thay đổi D. Culminated: lên cực điểm Chương trình được thay đổi sang hình thức “tiệc bãi biển” với các người mẫu nam nhảy múa và mọi người đều rất vui vẻ. PART 6 – tiết 1 KHÓA LUYỆN THI TOEIC – Cô VŨ MAI PHƯƠNG http:moon.vn – hotline: 04.32.99.98.98 143 But those interested in _____the future of fashion would he well advised to see Dolby Stones shows later in the week, or attend the opening of Varas photographic exhibit that opens later tomorrow (A) to design (B) designing (C) designed (D) have designed B Sau “interested in” cần một danh động từ (có chức năng tương đương danh từ) Nhưng những người có hứng thú với việc tạo nên tương lai của ngành thời trang được khuyên nên tới xem buổi biểu diễn của Dolby Stone diễn ra vào cuối tuần này, hoặc tới lễ khai mạc triển lãm ảnh của Vara vào ngày mai. Questions 144146 refer to the following letter. Dear Ms. Howard, It was a pleasure to meet you at last months home improvement expo at the conference centre in Dublin. It was a very _____ trip for our company and we were pleased with 144. (A) spiteful (B) successful (C) ferocious (D) sympathetic the strong interest in our doityourself product line. When we met, you expressed particular interest in these products and I have enclosed our latest catalogue for you to examine. If you would like to place an order, we also have a sameday doortodoor delivery service that is free _____ charge within the 145. (A) in (B) on (C) with (D) of Dublin area. If you choose to order via this new method, we ask that you return unsold items within two months of purchase. This is because we frequently upgrade and update our product line and need to keep it current for our wholesale customers. I look forward to receiving your order and I hope to have the pleasure _____ you 146. (A) on meeting (B) of meeting (C) did not meet (D) to have met again some time. Yours sincerely, Mrs. Debora Jones
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NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY 2011 2020

NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY 2011 2020

NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY FOR 20112020, WITH A VISION TOWARD 2030 HANOI, FEBRUARY 2012 DECISION Ratification of the National Nutrition Strategy for 2011 – 2020, With a Vision toward 2030 THE PRIME MINISTER Based upon the Government Organization Law dated 25 December 2001; and Based upon National Socioeconomic Development Strategy 2011 2020; Considering the Minster of Health’s request, DECIDED: Article 1. “The National Nutrition Strategy for 20112020, with a Vision toward 2030” is officially ratified with the following contents: 1. Principles a) Improving nutrition status is the responsibility of each person, including all levels of authority and all sectors. b) Balanced and proper nutrition is essential for achieving comprehensive physical and intellectual development of Vietnamese people and improved quality of life. c) Nutrition activities should involve multiple sectors, under the guidance and leadership of the Party and Government at all levels, with social mobilisation of mass organisations and the general population. Priority should be given to poor, disadvantaged areas and ethnic minority groups, and for mothers and small children. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 1 PRIME MINISTER SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INDEPENDENCE FREEDOM HAPPINESS No: 226 QÐTTg Hanoi, 22 February 2012 2. Objectives a) General objectives By the year 2020, the diet of Vietnamese people will be improved in terms of quantity, balanced in quality, hygienic and safe; Child malnutrition will be further reduced, especially prevalence of stunting, contributing to improved physical status and stature of Vietnamese people; and obesityoverweight will be managed, contributing to the control of nutritionrelated chronic diseases. b) Specific objectives 1. To continue to improve the diet of Vietnamese people, in terms of quantity and quality Indicators: ○ The proportion of households with low energy intake (below 1800 Kcal) will be reduced to 10 % by 2015 and 5 % by 2020. ○ The proportion of households with a balanced diet (Protein:Lipid:Carbohydrate ratio – 14:18:68) will reach 50% by 2015 and 75% by 2020. 2. To improve the nutrition status of mothers and children Indicators: ○ The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency in reproductiveaged women will be reduced to 15% by 2010 and less than 12% by 2020. ○ The rate of low birth weight (infants born less than 2,500g) will be reduced to under 10% prevalence by 2015 and less than 8% by 2020. ○ The rate of stunting in children under 5 years old will be reduced to 26% by 2015, and to 23% by 2020. ○ The prevalence of underweight among children under 5 years old will be reduced to 15% by 2015 and to 12.5% by 2020. ○ By 2020, the average height of children under 5 will increase by 1.5 – 2cm in both boys and girls; and height in adolescents by sex will increase by 11.5 cm compared with the averages from 2010. ○ The prevalence of overweight in children under 5 will be less than 5% in rural areas and less than 10% among urban populations by 2015, and will be maintained at the same rate by 2020. National nutrition stategy 2 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 3. To improve micronutrient status Indicators: ○ The prevalence of children under five with low serum vitamin A (<0.7 μmolL) will be reduced to 10 % by 2010 and below 8 % by 2020. ○ The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women will be reduced to 28% by 2015 and to 23 % by 2020. ○ The prevalence of anaemia among children will be reduced to 20% by 2015 and 15% by 2020. ○ By 2015, standardised iodized salt (≥20 ppm) will be regularly available throughout the country, with coverage of more than 90% of households. Mean urinary iodine levels in mothers with children under 5 will be between 1020 mcgdl, and these concentrations will be maintained by 2020. 4. To effectively control overweight and obesity and risk factors of nutrition related noncommunicable chronic disease in adults Indicators: ○ The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults will be controlled to a rate of less than 8% by 2010 and will increase to no more than 12% by 2020. ○ The proportion of adults with elevated serum cholesterol (over 5.2 mmolL) will be less than 28% in 2015 and will remain relatively controlled with less than 30% prevalence in 2020. 5. To improve knowledge and practices regarding proper nutrition in the general population Indicators: ○ The rate of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for the first 6 months will reach 27% by 2015 and 35% by 2020. ○ The proportion of mothers with proper nutrition knowledge and practices when caring for a sick child will reach 75% by 2015 and 85% by 2020. ○ The proportion of adolescent females receiving maternal and nutrition education will reach 60% by 2015 and 75% by 2020. 6. To reinforce capacity and effectiveness of the network of nutrition services in both community and health care facilities Indicators: For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 3 ○ By 2015, the proportion of nutrition coordinators receiving training in community nutrition (from 1 to 3 months) will reach 75% among provincial level employees and 50% of those at the district level. By 2020, this proportion will be 100% and 75%, respectively. ○ By 2015, 100% of communal nutrition coordinators and nutrition collaborators will be trained and updated on nutrition care practices. Training of all nutrition staff will be maintained in 2020. ○ The proportion of central and provincial hospitals with dieticians will reach 90% at central level, 70% at provincial level and 30% at district level by 2015. By 2020, this proportion will be 100%, 95%, and 50% respectively. ○ The proportion of hospitals applying nutrition counseling and therapeutic treatment for conditions such as aging health, HIVAIDS and TB, will reach 90% among central, 70% among provincial, and 20% among district hospitals by 2015. By 2020, the coverage will be 100%, 95% and 50%, respectively. ○ The proportion of provinces qualified for performing nutrition surveilance will reach 50% by 2015 and 75% by 2020. Nutrition data will be monitored with particular focus in vulnerable provinces, in emergency situations, and in provinces with high prevalence of malnutrition. c) Vision to 2030 By 2030, Vietnam aims to reduce child malnutrition below the level of public health significance (stunting rate to be less than 20% and underweight rate to be less than 10%) and to remarkably increase the mean height in adults. In addition, increased awareness about proper nutrition and behavior change should be improved in the general population for the prevention of nutrition related chronic diseases, which are on the rise. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation should be completed among different population groups in order to ensure appropriate and balanced diets. Additionally, adequate food safety controls should be ensured. Meeting these objectives will contribute to the overall goal of all population groups meeting nutrition requirements needed to maximise quality of life, especially for school children. 3. Main approaches a) Approaches for policy Leadership and guidance from all levels of the Party and Government should be reinforced in order to achieve the reduction of underweight. Nutrition indicators, particularly National nutrition stategy 4 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 the rate of stunting, should soon be considered a socioeconomic development indicator for the nation, as well as each locality. Monitoring and evaluation of the nutrition indicators should be strengthened in order to determine if the goals are being achieved. In order to effectively implement interventions for improved nutritional status, a multisector cooperation mechanism should be finalised, particularly involving the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism, Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs. In addition, there is a need to establish policies and procedures to mobilise and promote the involvement of mass organisations and industries in implementation of the National Nutrition Strategy. The legislative framework dealing with issues of food and nutrition should be developed and finalised. Specific areas of focus include: regulations on production, marketing and utilisation of nutrition products for small children, food fortification laws, adequate maternity leave, breast feeding promotion, school nutrition policy focusing on preschool and primary school children, and encouraging increased production of specialised nutrition products in the private sector to be used specifically among poor and disadvantaged groups, ethnic minority groups, pregnant women, children under 5, and children with special needs. b) Approaches for developing resources • Capacity building: ○ Nutrition, dietetics, and food safety professionals should be extensively trained and effectively used. ○ A variety of nutrition specialists should be trained to fill various roles including postgraduate, bachelor, and technician programs in nutrition and dietetics. ○ A staff network for professionals working in the field of nutrition should be developed and reinforced, particularly for those working in local communities. Capacity building of managerial staff should be strengthened from central to local levels, including those in relevant sectors and ministries. ○ The training format should be adapted according to socioeconomic needs and should be designed to meet the education level of its target audience. Priority should be given to people from ethnic minorities, disadvantaged groups, and areas with high prevalence of malnutrition. International cooperation in capacity building for development of nutrition programs should be promoted. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 5 • Financial resources: ○ The main approaches to raising financial resources are from social mobilisation and diversification of funding sources, with gradual increase projected toward investment of addressing nutrition issues. Potential funding sources include: state and local government budgets, international aid, and other legal financial supports which the state will allocate to national program and projects. ○ Financial resources should be managed and coordinated effectively, ensuring the equality and equity in nutrition care for all people. Monitoring, supervision and evaluation of the effectiveness of budget utilisation should be strengthened. c) Approaches for nutrition advocacy, education and communication: • Communication of health messages should be promoted, to raise awarenes on the importance of nutrition in the comprehensive physical and mental health development of children, targeting authorities and managers at all levels. • Mass media communication should be conducted using various methods and formats, with content appropriate for each region, area or target group to whom it is aimed in order to improve nutrition knowledge and practices. These messages are especially vital in the goals to reduce prevalence of stunting and the control of overweight and obesity and nutritionrelated noncommunicable diseases in all population groups. • A focus on nutrition and health education should be continued in the school system, from preschool onwards. Furthermore, a school nutrition program should be developed and implemented with the gradual introduction of school meals and milk available in preschools and primary schools. Appropriate models should be developed according to region and target group. d) Technical approaches • Specific food and nutrition interventions should be developed to improve nutritional status of target groups. Priority should be given to poor, disadvantaged and ethnic minority areas, as well as those at risk. • Proper nutrition care should be given to mothers during prenatal and postnatal periods. Exclusive breastfeeding should be promoted during the first 6 months with appropriate complementary feeding for children 6 months through 2 years of age. • The Food and Nutrition Surveillance Center should be strengthened at both central and regional level institutions in order to provide systematic monitoring of food consumption and nutritional status trends. National nutrition stategy 6 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 • A network of nutrition services including counseling and rehabilitation should be developed and improved. • Local food production, processing and utilisation should be promoted and diversified. The Vegetation Aquaculture Cage for Animal husbandry (VAC) ecosystem should be further developed, ensuring the production, circulation and distribution of safe foods. Daily consumption of fish, milk and vegetables should be promoted in order to encourage the population toward the goal of increased dietary diversity to meet the ideal Protein:Lipid:Carbohydrate ratio. • A system to monitor and forecast food insecurity at both national and household levels should be established. Furthermore, a plan to respond to nutrition issues following emergencies should be developed. e) Approaches for science and technology and international cooperation • Capacity building and management of scientific research in nutrition and food should be strengthened. Research, development and technology applications should be promoted to develop creation and selection of new breeds of livestock, production and processing of nutritionally fortified foods and specialised products. • Information technology and database development should be promoted in the areas of food and nutrition. • The utilisation of evidencebased information should be promoted in policy development, planning, and development of nutrition programs and projects at different levels, with particular focus on the reduction of stunting and micronutrient deficiencies. • Experiences and advances of nutrition sciences should be applied in the prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome and nutrition related noncommunicable diseases. • Active cooperation with scientifically advanced countries, institutes, and universities both regionally and globally should be cultivated in order to improve research and training needed to rapidly progress toward advanced science and technology standards and to build up nutrition capacity. • Comprehensive cooperation with international organisations should be promoted to support the implementation of National Nutrition Strategy (NNS). • International cooperation projects should be integrated into the activities of the NNS in order to achieve the NNS objectives. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 7 4. Implementation a) Phase 1 (20112015): Implementation of key activities for nutrition improvement, focusing on education, training, capacity building and strengthening of policies that support nutrition initiatives, institutionalisation of state direction for nutrition activities, and continuation of National target programs. b) Phase 2 (20162020): based on the evaluation of the implementation of phase 1 (2011 2015), phase 2 will involve policy modification, appropriate intervention, and comprehensive implementation of solutions and tasks in order to successfully carry out the objectives of the strategy. Furthermore, the nutrition database will be utilised for planning purposes and to sustain and evaluate implementation of the NNS. 5. Main projectsprograms to implement NNS: a) Project for nutrition education, communication and capacity building • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Health. • Cooperating agencies: The Ministry of Education and Training, the Ministry of Information and Communication, Vietnam Television, related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. b) Project for maternal and child malnutrition control, and improved stature • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Health. • Cooperating agencies: Related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. c) Project for micronutrient deficiency control • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Health. • Cooperating agencies: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the Ministry of Education and Training, the Ministry of Information and Communication, related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. d) Program for school nutrition • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Health. • Cooperating agencies: The Ministry of Education and Training, other related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. National nutrition stategy 8 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 e) Project for overweightobesity and nutritionrelated noncommunicable chronic disease control • The Ministry of Health is responsible, with cooperation from other related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees, for the activities in hospitals and the community. • The Ministry of Education and Training is responsible, with cooperation from the Ministry of Health and other related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees, for the activities in school system. f) Program for household food and nutrition security and nutrition following emergencies • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. • Cooperating agencies: The Ministry of Health, other related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. g) Nutrition surveillance project • Responsible agency: The Ministry of Health. • Cooperating agencies: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Ministry of Planning and Investment (GSO), other related ministries, sectors, agencies, and Provincial People’s Committees. Article 2. The implementation of the National Nutrition Strategy 1. The Ministry of Health shall be the executing body for the National Nutrition Strategy, in cooperation with the following groups: the Ministry of Planning and Investment, the Ministry of Finance, other related ministries, Provincial People’s Committees and socialpolitical organisations. The Ministry of Health, along with its partners, will work to develop a plan of action to implement the NNS nationally so that it is in line with relevant strategies, programs and projects. Projects and programs meeting the NNS’s objectives will be developed and implemented following approval by the assigned authorities. The Ministry of Health will monitor and regularly provide reports on the status of NNS implementation to the Prime Minister, organise a midterm review meeting in 2015, and a final review meeting in 2020. 2. The Ministry of Planning and Investment is responsible to allocate funding for NNS from the State budget approved by the National Assembly annually. It is also respon For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 9 sible to raise funds from international and domestic donors to address issues of nutrition. 3. The Ministry of Finance, in cooperation with the Ministry of Planning and Investment, will allocate sufficient budget annually to accomplish approved NNS projects and programs, based on the capacity of State budget, and the plan approved by the National Assembly. It will provide oversight into all expenditures based on current laws and regulations, in order to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and related agencies to develop policies to promote social mobilisation and encourage individual and institutional investment in nutrition. 4. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is responsible to provide guidance for planning and development of approaches to ensure food security. It will cooperate with line ministries and sectors to implement additional plans of action to ensure national food security. Furthermore, it is responsible to develop policies regarding food security, food processing, VAC ecosystem development, and promotion of safe water supply in rural areas. 5. The Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) is responsible for the development of nutrition education and physical exercise programs from preschool through undergraduate education. This program should include: meal management, a school milk program for preschool and primary school children, development of a school nutrition model, and improved development of preschool and school canteen services. MOET will also gradually increase cooperation with the Ministry of Health to promulgate nutrition in the school setting through incorporation of nutrition education in school curriculum in all levels. The Ministry of Education and Training is also responsible to cooperate with the Ministry of Health in planning and training for capacity building to meet the needs of the NNS implementation. 6. The Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs is responsible to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and line ministries to develop and implement policies which support nutrition issues, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged areas. 7. The Ministry of Information and Communication is responsible to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and line ministries to provide guidance and implementation of nutrition information and communication activities, focusing on dissemination of information on proper nutrition. In addition, it will closely monitor advertising compliance with government regulations related to food and nutrition, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health and line ministries. National nutrition stategy 10 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 8. Line ministries, ministerial and governmental agencies will participate in the implementation of NNS within their mandate and assigned responsibilities. 9. The Provincial People’s Commitees are responsible for the implementation of the National Nutrition Strategy in their respective localities based on the instruction of the Minstry of Health and line ministriessectors. The committees will develop and implement an annual and 5year and plan of action for nutrition according to the objectives set forth in the NNS and the socioeconomic development plan for the same period. They will actively mobilise resources, integrate nutrition with other ongoing relevant strategies, and integrate nutrition issues in the socioeconomic development plan for their respective provinces. They will regularly supervise the implementation of the NNS in their provinces, and submit annual reports following current regulations. 10. The Vietnam Women’s Union is requested, based on technical guidance of the Ministry of Health, to promulgate health and nutrition knowledge to its members and mothers, to advocate for the community support in issues of health and nutrition care in order to provide further improvement of maternal and child nutrition. 11. The Vietnam Fatherland Front, Vietnam General Confederation of Labour, Vietnam Famer’s Association, Ho Chi Minh Youth Union, Association for Elderly People, and other professional associations and social organisations are requested, based on technical guidance of the Ministry of Health, to promulgate health and nutrition knowledge to their members, and to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and relevant agencies in social mobilisation to support implementation of the National Nutrition Strategy. Article 3. This decision is in effect from the date of its ratification. Article 4. Ministers, Heads of Ministryleveled Institutions, Heads of Government Offices, and related agencies, Chairmen of the Peoples Committees of provinces are requested to be responsible for the execution of this Decision. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 11 On behalf of PRIME MINISTER DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Signed Nguyen Thien Nhan NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY FOR 20112020, WITH A VISION TOWARD 2030 CONTENT ABREVIATIONS.............................................................................................................16 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................17 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NNS FOR 2001 2010 .....................................18 I. Acchivements.............................................................................................................18 II. Challenges..................................................................................................................23 III. Causes.........................................................................................................................24 IV. Lessons learnt ............................................................................................................26 NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY FOR 20112020 WITH A VISION TO 2030..............................................................................................27 I. Socioeconomic context and nutrition issues in the next decade............................27 1. Context opportunities and challenges ................................................................27 2. Nutrition issues forecasted for 2020.....................................................................28 II. Vision for the year 2030............................................................................................29 III. Principles and directions ..........................................................................................29 1. Principles..............................................................................................................29 2. Main directions.....................................................................................................29 IV. Objectives...................................................................................................................30 1. Overall objective ..................................................................................................30 2. Specific objectives................................................................................................30 3. To improve micronutrient status .........................................................................31 4. To effectively control overweight and obesity and risk factors of nutrition related noncommunicable chronic disease in adults ............................31 5. To improve knowledge and practices regarding proper nutrition in the general population ................................................................................................31 6. To reinforce capacity and effectiveness of the network of nutrition services in both community and health care facilities..........................................31 V. Stategic approaches ..................................................................................................32 1. Legislative approaches .........................................................................................32 2. Resource development .........................................................................................33 National nutrition stategy 14 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 3. Approaches on advocacy, nutrition information, education and communication .....................................................................................................33 4. Technical approaches ...........................................................................................34 5. Approaches for science and technology and international cooperation...............34 VI. Projects and programs to implement the NNS......................................................35 VII. Implementation........................................................................................................40 1. Organisation .........................................................................................................40 2. Specific roles of relevant ministries, sectors and mass organisations..................40 3. Cooperative mechanism .......................................................................................42 4. Planning................................................................................................................42 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 15 ABREVIATIONS ADB Asian Development Bank BMI Body Mass Index CED Chronic Energy Deficiency EBF Exclusive Breastfeeding FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation IUGR Intra Uterine Growth Restriction MDG Millennium Development Goal MOH Ministry of Health NGO Nongovernmental Organisation NIN National Institute of Nutrition NNS National Nutrition Strategy P:L:C Protein:Lipid:Carbohydrate ratio TB Tuberculosis UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund VAC Vegetation Aquaculture Cage for Animal husbandry WHO World Health Organization National nutrition stategy 16 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 INTRODUCTION In the last decade, socioeconomic development combined with the attention, guidance, and investment from the Party and the Government, the efforts of health sector, and the active involvement of other sectors and the society, have contributed to improvement in household food security. Vietnam has shown remarkable achievement in improving health and nutritional status of the population. The majority of the objectives from the National Nutrition Strategy during the period of 2001 2010 have been met or exceeded. Nutrition knowledge and practices in the population have been remarkably improved. The prevalence of undernutrition in children under 5 has continuously and rapidly decreased. During the 35th session of the Standing Committee in Nutrition of the United Nations held in Hanoi in March 2008, UNICEF recognised Vietnam as one of the few countries with reduction of child malnutrition close to the Millenium Development Goals (MDG). However, despite these remarkable achievements in recent years, Vietnam continues to face significant challenges in nutrition. While the rate of stunting in children under 5 remains at a high level, overweightobesity and nutritionrelated noncommunicable diseases are on the rise. This dichotomy is refered to as the double burden of nutrition. The challenges in the present context require stronger nutrition and health interventions in the general population, contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, which the Vietnamese Government has committed to within the international community. Investment in nutrition is an investment in building human capacity of high quality to further the industrialisation and modernisation of the country. The National Nutrition Strategy (NNS) is an essential tool that cannot be detached from the economic and social development strategies of the country; which work jointly to address the emerging nutrition problems and to continue to improve the nutrition status of Vietnamese people. These strategies are particularly important in addressing the nutrition needs of women and children, thus contributing to increased stature, physical and intellectual status of Vietnamese people. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 17 Part one THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NNS FOR 2001 2010 I. ACHIEVEMENTS As a followup to the National Plan of Action for Nutrition 19952000, The National Nutrition Strategy for 20012010, ratified by the Prime Minister on February 22nd 2001 in Decision 212001QĐTTg, was the official document guiding nutrition policy for the Government. It was the foundation to direct all nutrition interventions between 2001 2010 supported by Government investment, to promote social mobilisation, as well as to guide activities supported by international organisations. Ten years following implementation, with comprehensive approaches and multisector cooperation and guidance from the Party and the Government at different levels, the nutrition status of the general population, and particularly that of mothers and children under 5 has significantly improved, and awareness of nutrition issues has increased among Vietnamese people. 1. Achievements in communication, advocacy, and nutrition knowledge and practices In the decade following initial implementation, advocacy and communication interventions have been diversified and varied in terms of both content and apprearance in order to improve awareness of proper nutrition and affect behavior change, particulary among target groups, remoteisolated areas, and ethnic minorities. It appears to have had significant influence on the awareness of different target groups in the community. The awareness of the importance of nutrition amongst Party and Government authorities at all levels has also remarkably improved. Reduction of malnutrition has become a socioeconomic development indicator both nationally and locally. Reduction of child malnutrition has significant implications for future generations and contributes to annual GDP growth through a healthier working population. The proportion of mothers with good nutrition knowlewdge and practices while caring for a child experiencing illness increased from 44.5% in 2005 to 67% in 2009. The proportion of adolescent females receiving education on proper nutrition and maternal health increased to 28% in 2005 and 44% in 2010, meeting the defined NNS objectives. 2. Promulgation of nutrition supportive policies Over the past 10 years, many documents and policies issued by the Party, the Government and the Ministry of Health to create the legislative framework and orientation for nutrition control, contributing to the achievement of the defined objectives. Reduction of undernutrition has become one of a few health indicators to be included amongst documents reviewed by the National Congress of the Vietnam Communist Party. This indicator has also been evaluated and monitored annually by the National Assembly. National nutrition stategy 18 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 The Vietnam Strategy on social and economic development for 2001 2010 includes many important documents supporting nutrition, promulgated by the Government to enable implementation of the NNS. These documents include: The Strategy on protection and care for people’s health ratified by Decision 352001QDTTg dated Mar 19, 2001; National Strategy on Reproductive Health Care; Vietnam Population Strategy; Decree 1632005NDCP dated Dec 12, 2005 on the production and supply of iodized salts; Decision of the Prime Minister No 1492007QDTTg dated September 10, 2007 to ratify the National Strategy on Food Hygiene and Safety period 20062010; Decree 212006NDCP dated Feb 27, 2006 of the Government on the production and marketing of breastmilk substitutes; Decision 63NQCP dated Dec 23, 2009 on national food security; Decree 48NDCP dated Sep 23, 2009 on the mechanism and policy to reduce postharvest loss of agricultural and aquacultural products; Food safety Law; Decision 239QDTTg of the Prime Minister dated Feb 9, 2010 to ratify the preschool compulsory education for 5yearold children for the period of 20102015. 3. Increased investment in nutrition In recent years, the Party and Government of Vietnam have invested in the control of undernutrition, particularly targeting preschool children. Since 2000, programs addressing control of child undernutrition have been included amongst National Target Projects on social diseases and dangerous endemics, with an average funding of 100 billion VND per year. As a result of advocacy and communication, local governments at all levels, with support from international organisations, have contributed dozens of billions of VND, in addition to national funding, to support activities to control prevalence of child undernutrition annually. In addition to investment from the government, nutrition policies and support from international organisations, and governmental and nongovernmental organisations, such as UNICEF, WHO, FAO, ADB, the Government of Netherlands, Japan, Australia, have provided increased attention and support for the achievement of the NNS objectives. This support has helped to strengthen nutrition interventions, increasing the effectiveness of implementation of the NNS nationally. 4. Reinforced multisector cooperation guidance from the central to local levels Multisector cooperation is a key component of effectively implementing nutrition activities and programs. The Government Decision 212001TTg dated February 22nd, 2001, assigned the Ministry of Health responsibility for developing, providing guidance, coordinating and evaluating the implementation of the NNS, working in collaboration with other ministries, sectors and organisations, as well as with international organisations. The Steering Committee of the NNS has focused on planning, multisector and intersector approaches, and resource mobilisation for the implementation of the NNS. Amongst other ministries and sectors at central level, there have been focal units to cooperate with the Ministry of Health to achieve the objectives of the NNS; actively developing action plans For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 19 to jointly implement the NNS. Many other sectors and agencies have integrated nutrition interventions in their functional activities, such as the Ministry of Education and Training (kindergarten, primary School), the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Vietnam Women’s Union, the Farmer’s Association, the Youth Union, and the Vietnam Labor Union. Following ratification of the NNS, provinces established Steering Committees (Chaired by Vice President of the Provincial People’s Committee with the Provincial Health Service as the standing body and the Provincial Preventive Health Center as the focal point) to develop action plans to implement the NNS, particularly incorporating the indicator of reduction of child undernutrition in the annual socioeconomic development plan for each locality. Many provincescities have further strengthened multisector cooperation, signing agreements to confirm the multisector commitments and ensuring necessary monitoring and supervision for the effective implementation of those commitments. 5. Reinforced and extended implementation network for the NNS The network for implementation of activities within the NNS framework has also been reinforced. There is now a department of nutrition and food hygine and safety in each of the 63 Provincial Preventive Health Centers. The Reproductive Health network has nutrition coordinators in provincial, district and commune levels. There are over 100,000 nutrition coordinators and collaborators which cover all hamlets nationwide. In addition, the nutrition network incorporated staff from central to local levels of the Ministry of Education and Training, Agriculture and Rural Development, the Farmer’s Association, the Women’s Union, and others, who have expanded their participation in implementing the NNS. Building and developing the nutrition network are key tasks needed to accomplish the goals of the NNS. Furthermore, advanced training for nutrition specialists has been reinforced. Nutrition departments in medical and nonmedical schools have been set up and operate training programs in the field of nutrition. In order to develop a stronger nutrition network from central to local levels, the National Institute of Nutrition has also cooperated with universities to train dietetic technicians, and nutritionists with bachelors, masters and PhD degrees in community nutrition. Currently, a program for a bachelor’s degree in nutrition is being developed, with a goal to provide more trained staff to local nutrition programs. Within the framework of the NNS, many technical training courses have been held for multisector staff working in nutrition, contributing more effective implementation of nutrition programs. 6. Significant improvement of maternal and child nutrition During the period from 2001 to 2010, the nutritional status of Vietnamese people in general remarkably improved, as well as that of mothers and children. National nutrition stategy 20 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 Prevalence of underweight (weight for age) in children under 5 has been signicantly reduced, with a national average of 1.5% annually, from 31.9% in 2001 to 25.2% in 2005 and 17.5% in 2010 (beyond the NNS objective). The progress in reduction of malnutrition of Vietnam has been acknowledged and highly appreciated by international organisations. Stunting rate (low height for age) in children under 5 nationally has also been significantly reduced from 43.3% in 2000 to 29.3% in 2010; however, Vietnam remains among the 36 countries with the highest stunting rates in the world1. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children under 5 nationwide is 4.8% (5.7% in urban and 4.2% in rural), lower than that of the defined objective of the NNS (less than 5%). The rate of low birth weight (infants born less than 2500g) is one of major indicators included in the NNS, which the WHO defines as a key nutrition and health indicator. Based on reports from the Nutrition Surveillance system of the NIN in 2009, this rate was estimated at 12.5%. Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) in women is correlated to significant problems in maternal health and nutrition care and is linked to IUGR. Nationally, the prevalence of CED in women of reproductive age has been decreasing at an average near 1% annually, from 20002009. Nutrition surveys conducted by the GSO in 2005 and 2009 revealed the CED rate in reproductiveaged women (defined as BMI less than 18.5) decreased from 28.5% in 2000 to 21.9 % in 2005 and 19.6% in 2009. On average, between 2000 and 2009, the rate of reduction was 0.98% per year, nearly meeting the NNS defined objective of 1%. 7. Reduction of Vitamin A and Iodine deficiency and nutritional anaemia in pregnant women Micronutrient deficiency control is one of key interventions needed to improve nutrition and health status for women and children, particularly in its role in the reduction in the prevalence of stunting. In the past 10 years, over 85% of children between 636 months old and over 60% of mothers within one month of delivery have received vitamin A supplementation each year. In addition, vulnerable children including those with pneumonia, measles, or prolonged diarrhoea,are also provided high dose vitamin A supplements. This program of supplementation has been reported to be safe, and has enabled Vietnam to sustainably reduce clinical vitamin A deficiency since 2001. Since 2005, Vietnam has nearly eliminated iodine deficiency in pregnant women and children. At present, the NNS objective to reduce goiter prevalence in children 812 years old has been achieved, however, sustainability of maintaining mean urinary iodine level and iodized salt coverage have not yet met the standard set forth by the NNS. In recent years, qualified iodized salt coverage was reduced from 91.9% in 2005 to 69.5% in 2009. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 21 1 Based on new WHO standards Iron deficiency anaemia amongst pregnant women in target areas has been reduced in recent years, with just18.9% prevalence in 2009, meeting the NNS objective. However, since target areas represent only a fraction of the country due to limitations in external funding for iron and folate supplements, prevalence remains very high at 36.5% nationally. In addition to direct supplementation of vitamin A, iron, and folate, food fortification methods have been also applied including iodine fortification of salt and iron fortification of fish sauce. 8. Strengthened food hygiene and food safety controls In the past decade, numerous regulations have been established regarding the management of food hygiene and safety. The National Plan of Action for Food hygiene and safety in 2010 and the National Program for Food hygiene and safety 2006 2010 were ratified by the Prime Minister, attempting to move Vietnam in line with regional and international standards, in order to meet the needs for development and integration. Additional legislation regarding food safety was approved in the National Assembly in June 2010, providing an important legal framework to improve the effectiveness of food safety and protect the overall health of the population. Quality control, inspection, and laboratory systems have been reinforced in the food safety sector. The National Institute for Food hygiene and Safety was established in 2009 as a division of the Ministry of Health. Food laboratories in national and regional research institutes have also been established or upgraded, and food safety management systems in local areas have been strengthened. In order to further promote awareness, the Food Administration has regularly organized “Food Safety Month” from April 15th to May 15th, nationally. The comprehensive movements in organisation, management and implementation from central to local levels have enabled good progress in food hygiene and safety control. In 2009, public food poisoning cases reported decreased by 53.5% compared to cases in 1999, and in the same decade, there was a 31.2% decrease in the total number of individuals who experienced food poisoning, and a 51.4% reduction in deaths related to food poinsoning. 9. International Cooperation Following the orientation, objectives and approaches of the NNS, many bilateral and multilateral international cooperation projects have been implemented in different areas of the country, including projects funded by UNICEF that have provided vitamin A capsules for children, support breastfeeding promotion, goiter control, and nutrition advocacy and nutrition monitoring and evaluation. In addition, numerous projects funded by organisaions and governments have helped further NNS objectives, including: the project for “Local Capacity Building for Effective and Sustainable Implementation of Communitybased Nutrition Activities for Women and Children in Ten Disadvantaged Provinces in Vietnam” funded by the government of the Netherlands in 20052008, the project for “Fortified Fish National nutrition stategy 22 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 Sauce” funded by GAIN through the World Bank from 20052008, the project for “Complementary food for vulnerable children 624 months old in poor areas”, and the project for “Child nutrition improvement through Vitamin A supplementation for children 660 months old combined with deworming for children 2460 months old in 18 disadvantaged provinces of Vietnam” both funded by Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction through the ADB. These projects have contributed remarkly to the improvement of the nutritional status of Vietnamese people. II. CHALLENGES 1. In the past 10 years, the Party and the Government have increased attention and investment in nutrition programsactivities. However, due to limited budget, sufficient resources to reach the defined NNS objectives have not yet been realised. Many provinces have not yet provided necessary support, including funding to meet nutrition objectives. In addition, international funding for nutrition in Vietnam has been decreasing since 2005. 2. The network for implementing nutrition activities has not been stable and synchronised. There is a high rate of turnover amongst nutrition staff, as well as a general shortage of qualified nutrition staff working in community, school and hospital settings. Furthermore, many new staff have not received formal nutrition training to provide high quality services. Despite measures aimed to increase awareness, attention to nutrition issues amongst local authorities and awareness of community nutrition issues remain limited. 3. Improper nutrition knowledge and practices are still common amongst mothers and family members, especially those living in rural and remoteisolated areas and ethnic groups. 4. In many sites, ensuring food hygiene and safety has not been well implemented, thus affecting the nutrition status of local people. 5. There is a disparity in prevalence of undernutrition among regions (including underweight and stunting). Child underutrition prevalence is very high in Northern Midland and Mountain areas, Central Highlands and North Central and Central Coastal areas compared to the national average and other regions, requiring focused interventions. 6. A number of objectives have not been achieved as expected: • Prevalence of stunting (height for age) in children under 5 remained high at 29.3% in 2010. In 2010, 28 provinces reported prevalence of stunting greater than national average, amongst those provinces, 12 reported having rates over 35%, which is classified as a high level by WHO. • The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women is high at 36.5% nationally. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 23 • Exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low with 29.3% at 4 months and 19.6% at 6 months, although 93% of children receive some breast milk. • The coverage of qualified iodized salt has not been sustained following cessation of the project in 2005. III. SUCCESSES AND FAILURES 1. Causes for achievement of NNS objectives a) Leadership and guidance of authorities of all levels The Party, National Assembly, government, relevant ministries and sectors have enacted numerous guidelines and instructions to implement the NNS and nutritionrelated issues. In the 35th session of the UN Standing Committee for Nutrition, held on March 2008 in Hanoi, the Governement of Vietnam committeed to continue to address issue of malnutrition, with a goal to reduce underweight to less than 20% by 2010, and less than 15% by 2015. Reduction of undernutrition has become a national indicator in the Resolution of the National Party Cogress and annual resolutions of National Assembly and People’s Council at all levels. Central and local government is increasing investment in nutrition related issues every year. At the central level, funding has increased from 30 billion VND in 2001 to 122 billion VND in 2010. Local funding has also increased, from 8 VND billion in 2001 to 20 billion VND in 2010. b) Active involvement of relevant sectors and mass organisations at all levels During implementation of NNS, many relevant ministries, sectors and mass organisations have developed formats and models directed to target groups and specific tasks, with increased involvement of the population as a result. In addition, some sectors have advised the governement regarding the promulgation of nutrition supporting policies and even developed their own action plans for implementation of the NNS. Most of the localities have good multisectoral cooperation for NNS implementation. c) Policy to implement comprehensive nutrition activities from central to local levels The Ministry of Health, through their role as the chairing body, and National Institute of Nutrition as the focal point for nutrition activities, have developed proper intervention approaches, an effective implementation mechanism, and close monitoring and supervision. Nutrition activities have been conducted widely and comprehensively from the central to community levels nationwide through designated nutrition coordinators and collaborators who have mobilised relevant sectors, mass organisations and communities. Awareness of proper nutrition and malnutrition control amongst government officials and local communities has been raised as a result of nutrition activities. National nutrition stategy 24 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 d) Socioeconomic development and growth in science and technology create a favourable enviroment In the last 10 years, the economy has grown rapidly. The proportion of poor households has been continuously and sustainably reduced . Education, information, and communication systems have developed rapidly. International integration has increased in scope and depth. These achievements have contributed to the improved quality of life and enabled increased access to information and knowledge on health and nutrition topics. e) Effective support from international organisations, governmental organisations, and mobilisation of external and internal NGOs International organisations, government organisations and NGOs have provided generous technical and financial support for the implementation of many activities within the NNS, including research, staff training, education, communication, and intervention projects. Resources have been enhanced through domestic and international cooperation. Social mobilisation, especially in the child malnutrition control program, has achieved a high level of efficacy. 2. Potential causes for failure to reach NNS objectives a) In some localities, Party, government, and community authorities have not given adequate attention to nutrition issues, or not recognised their importance In some areas, steering committees for NNS implementation and malnutrition control programs have been established, following the instructions of the central government, but they have failed to thoroughly execute the objectives. In addition, nutrition indicators have not been integrated in local annual resolutions and socioeconomic plans. The implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review have been done mostly by the health sector instead. As a result, knowledge and awareness of proper health and nutrition practices are still limited amongst some segments of the population. b) Resource investment has not met actual needs Resources invested to address nutrition issues have not yet met the actual needs for comprehensive and synchronised implementation of the NNS nationally. The nutrition network, particularly in the field of dietetics, remains weak due to the inadequate number of trained staff. The majority of the budget has been allocated for activities to control child malnutrition, focusing on reduction of underweight. Other important nutrition issues such as stunting and micronutrient deficiencies have not yet received due attention. The mobilisation of local resources for NNS implementation has been constrained. Many localities remain passive, depending mostly on funding allocated by the central government. Funding from international sources has not been coordinated and managed effectively, following the national priorities. For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 25 c) Management and operation constraints Nutrition related policies have not been synchronised, for example, although the health sector promotes exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, the labor laws provide only 4 months of maternity leave. Policies and decisions often overlap between different governing bodies, such as food hygiene and safety, production and marketing of nutrition products for infants. The nutrition network has been insufficient and unstable to accomplish the NNS objectives. The process of planning, determining objectives and budget allocation have not adequately considered local needs and situations. In addition, some evaluation indicators have not been closely monitored. The role of the health sector has also been lacking in coordination and technical guidance in some localities. Many programs and projects related to nutrition amongst other sectors have not properly focused on technical requirements or the sustainability of interventions. Multisector cooperation for certain activities has not been strong enough, and remains in theory more than in practice. Budget allocation for nutrition activites in other sectors remains limited. In general, there is a lack of united coordination in the framework to achieve the NNS objectives. IV. LESSONS LEARNT 1. Strong committement of Party and governement authorities at all levels is an essential and prerequisite factor to ensure the success of nutrition activities. Objectives of malnutrition control should be incorporated into the resolution of the Party’s Congress and annual resolutions of the National Assembly and local People’s Councils. 2. Malnutriton is not only caused by hunger but also by ignorance, therefore education and communication to raise awareness of proper nutrition and affect behaviour change are key interventions that should be maintained. 3. Nutrition activities require more creative approaches based on an analysis of each localities’ needs. Local initiatives, proposals and models should be developed, collected, and reviewed in order to provide effective guidance and orientation for implementation. 4. The successes in reduction of child malnutrition in many cities and provinces have provided an example of the important role played by multisector cooperation and mass organisations at different levels. 5. Monitoring and evaluation of nutrition data and food intake should be systematically performed, focusing on vulnerable regions and populations. At the same time, new research should be proposed and conducted in order to identify and assess emerging nutrition problems, thus developing recommendations in a timely to rapidly respond with appropriate interventions. 6. International cooperation should be strengthened, with mobilisation of additional resources in order to increase funding for nutrition programs and projects. National nutrition stategy 26 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 Part two NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY FOR 20112020, WITH A VISION TOWARD 2030 The foundation for the development of the National Nutrition Strategy was based on: • Documents of the National Congress of the Communist Party XI (2011). • Conclusion No 43KLTW ratified April 1,2009, by the Politburo detailing the achievements made in three years during the implementation of Resolution No 46NQTW ratified February 23, 2005 by the Politburo (IX) on “protection, care and improvement of people’s health in the new situation”. • Socioeconomic development strategy for 20012020. • Resolution No 37CP dated June 20, 1996 on the focus for strategy on health care and protection, with defined basic indicators for public health for the year 2020. • Drafted Strategy for care and protection of public health from 20112020, with a vision to 2030. • Official message No 689TH signed June 29, 2011 by the government, which agreed to put “The National Nutrition Strategy for 20112020, with a Vision to 2030” into the Activities of the Government and Prime Minister in 2011. I. SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT AND NUTRITION ISSUES IN THE NEXT DECADE 1. Context opportunities and challenges: Vietnam is entering the second decade of 21st century with many opportunities and challenges. The economy continues to grow. Trends of globalisation and economic integration have opened development opportunities in many socioeconomic fields, in particular, the fields of science and technology. The proportion of poor households, particularly those with food insecurity, has been remarkably reduced. The average education level has also improved and the literacy rate has been maintained at a high level. Vietnam has achieved remarkable improvement in the nutrition status of the population. Maternal and child malnutrition has remarkably and sustainably decreased, and knowledge on proper nutrition has been improved. Food security has been strengthened and the average diet of Vietnamese people has been diversified in quality and quantity. There has already been evidence of improved stature of Vietnamese people. In addition to the forementioned opportunities, Vietnam also encounters many challenges affecting the nutrition situation and work objectives for the coming years, including: For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 National nutrition stategy 27 a) Globalisation brings new issues to many countries, including Vietnam, raising emerging challenges in nutrition and food safety. b) Large scale urbanisation raises issues related to social structure, food production, and biological environment. The process of urban growth leads to increased economic disparity through reduction of land available for agriculture, which provides for the livlihood of the majority of the population. In addition, the urban population show significant changes from traditional dietary behaviors with a diet more rich in fat, carbohydrates and processed products. c) Vietnam has been recognised as one among 5 countries badly affected by global climate change. Each year, Vietnam faces many natural disasters including floods, typhoons, and drought, leading to increased risk of serious epidemics and food insecurity. d) Population growth has further increased the pressure for development. By 2020, the population of Vietnam is expected to rise to about 150 million people. In order to meet the needs of a growing population, adequate food supply and sufficient health and nutrition services must be secured. e) Since the economic status has improved in recent years, when Vietnam is no longer considered as a lowincome country, external funding and Official Development Assistance (ODA) for nutrition programsactivities from international organisations will continue to decline. f) There is a growing challenge presented by the doubleburden of nutrition, with high prevalence of undernutrition in mothers and children, combined with rising rates of overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases. 2. Nutrition issues forecasted for 2020 The following issues should be given increased attention, investment, and guidance to address nutrition problems in the coming decades. a) Child malnutrition remains at a high level by WHO classification, with significant regional disparity. In particular, the stunting rate, a measure of height according to age, remained high at 29.3% in 2010 and significantly varied amongst different regions. Nationally, there are 12 provinces with prevalence of stunting greater than 35%, mostly in 3 regions: Central Highlands, Central Coastal, and Northern Midland and Mountain areas. b) Micronutrient deficiencies, especially in mothers and children, are still common, including anaemia in pregnant women (36.5%), and in children under 5 (29.2%). Subclinical vitamin A deficiency and and iodine deficiency are still problems of public health significance, particularly in the Central Highlands, Northwest and Central Coastal areas. c) Vietnam is currently encountering the double burden of nutrition. In recent years, the rate of malnutrition has remained high, and in addition, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and nutritionrelated chronic diseases has also increased, leading to a new National nutrition stategy 28 For 2011 – 2020, with a vision toward 2030 pattern of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. Overweight and obesity is now estimated in 4.8% of children and 6.6% of adults. d) The role of school nutrition’s ability to influence children’s height and growth, particularly for children who were stunted in early childhood has not received adequate attention and investment, e) Clinical nutrition and dietetics departments in hospitals have not been given adequate focus and resources and have been deeply affected by the transition from subsidized to market economy. Therefore, the system should be reestablished and developed to meet the needs of nutrition care particularly for aging people and other target groups including HIVAIDS and TB patients. f) The implementation network for nutrition activities has not yet been synchronised. There remains a shortage of quality nutrition staff in sufficient numbers to serve in community and hospital settings. II. VISION FOR THE YEAR 2030 By 2030, Vietnam aims to reduce child undernutrition to a level below public health significance (prevalence of stunting < 20% and underweight < 10%) and to remarkably increase adult height. Knowledge of proper nutrition practices should be effectively communicated for the prevention of nutritionrelated chronic diseases, which are on the rise. Food intake amongst different population groups should be monitored, particularly in school children, to ensure appropriate and balanced diets. Furthermore, food safety should been strengthened to help maintain nutritional gains. These strategies will help to ensure that nutrition requirements are met and contribute to improvement in quality of life. III. PRINCIPLES AND DIRECTIONS 1. Principles a) Improving nutritional status is the responsibility of all people, amongst all authority levels and sectors. b) Balanced and proper nutrition is an essential factor to achieve comprehensive physical and intellectual development and improved quality of life . c) Nutrition activities should involve multisector collaboration, under the guidance and leadership of the Party and Government at all levels, with social mobilisation of mass organisations and the general population. Priority should be given to poor, disadvantaged areas and ethnic minority groups, as well as to mothers and small children. 2. Directions a) Nutritionrelated health problems should be comprehensively addressed, with a focus on reduction of child malnutrition, in particular, the reduction of child stunting through early nutrition interventions for women of reproductive age, pregnant women and children, in order to improve averag
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Comparing the results of PSInSAR and GNSS on slow motion landslides, Koyulhisar, Turkey

COMPARING THE RESULTS OF PSINSAR AND GNSS ON SLOW MOTION LANDSLIDES, KOYULHISAR, TURKEY

There are numerous methods used nowadays to monitor landslide movements. Of these methods, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are the ones that are most commonly used. In this study, the amounts of movements acquired via these two methods were compared and relations between them were analysed. The Koyulhisar landslide region was selected as the field of study. In this study, 10 Envisat images of the region taken between 2006 and 2008 were evaluated using Persistent Scatterers Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) technique and annual velocity values at the direction of line of slight at PS points were obtained for the region of interest. The velocity values were then obtained from PSInSAR results and compared with those obtained from six periods of GNSS measurements that were performed between April 2007 and November 2008 on Koyulhisar Landslide area after which the relationship between the two was analysed. Two different movement models from GNSS and PSInSAR results were fit to the landslide region. The velocity values estimated from these movement models for the region were compared and correlation between them was determined. As a conclusion, a high correlation of r D 0.84 was determined between the models obtained from nine GNSS points, except one point at the city centre, and PSInSAR.
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Key Unit 2. Families and weekdays.

KEY UNIT 2. FAMILIES AND WEEKDAYS.

Exercise : Complete the sentences: I’m Marcus and this is my garden. My mother’s Susan and this is her hat. They are Robert and Adam and this is their bedroom. He is Marco and this is his living room. We are Betti and Barbara and this is our favourite book. its title is Twilight. He is Rachel and this is his sister. These are my teachers. their names are Paul and Rita. This is my brother. his name is Peter. He is a student in Hungary. We are friends. our hobbies are gardening and walking. I’m Sophy and this is my dog, Aladin. Exercise : 1The plural of line is  ? lines  ? linies  ? lins  ? linses 2 The plural of key is  ? keys  ? keyies  ? keies  ? keyes 3 The plural of baby is a. ? babys b. ? babies c. ? babyes d. ? babyses 4 The plural of wish is a. ? wish b. ? wishies c. ? wishs d. ? wishes 5 The plural of show is a. ? showes b. ? showies c. ? showers d. ? shows 6 The plural of enemy is a. ? enemys b. ? enemies c. ? enemyes d. ? enemes 7 The plural of loss is a. ? loss b. ? lossies c. ? losses d. ? lossys 8 The plural of church is a. ? churchs b. ? churchies c. ? churches
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BỘ ĐỀ THI GIÁO VIÊN DẠY GIỎI MÔN TIẾNG ANH

BỘ ĐỀ THI GIÁO VIÊN DẠY GIỎI MÔN TIẾNG ANH

Question 1: Pick out the word with the underlined part pronounced differently from thatof the others.1. A. planned B. passed C. laughed D. cooked2. A. months B. tickets C. clubs D. books3. A. grew B. threw C. knew D. flew4. A. off B. of C. safe D. knife5. A. realiabe B. living C. revial D. finalQuestion 2: Pick out the word has stress differently from that of the others.1. A. equality B. dificulty C. simplicity D. discovery2. A. tenant B. common C. rubbish D. machine3. A. animal B. bacteria C. habitant D. pyramid4. A. employee B. engineer C. picturesque D. delicious5. A. company B. atmosphere C. customer D. employmentQuestion 3: Supply the correct form of the verb in brackets.1. We couldn’t risk (leave) him alone. .2. Up to now , we (watch) this film twice .3. She will not have any pudding until she (eat) her potatoes .4. Stay here till the lights (turn) green.5. I remember (take) to that place once.6. By the time next week, she (work) in this company for 20 years.7. He loooked frightened as if he (see) ghossts.8. (Write) the letter, she put it in an envelope.9. Our classmates couldn’t help (laugh) when they heard the teachers funny story.10. I get used to (walk) under the rain.Question 4: Use the correct form of the words in brackets to complete sentences1. His behavior always ……….me at parties . (embarass) 2. The new film is…………….. .good. (exception) 3. She felt a sense of... ... …when her friend went to live abroad. (lose) .4. You need a lot of……………….. to be a teacher. (patient) 5. David ………. quickly and got into the warm bath . (dress)6.The weather will be bright with………………showers. ( occasion)7. He draws cartoons for a………………magazine (humour)8. Joko was a very .........pupil, and leaned easily. ( gift)9. People are being……in the surburbs and have to commute to work (house)Đề số 6210. The situation is so………..in some cities now that it difficult to see any solution.(chaos)Question5: Choose the word or phrase that best complete each sentence.1. There should be no discrimination on ………….. of sex, race, or religion .A. fields B. places C. areas D. grounds2. The numbers add …………A. off B. up C. in D. out3. Argentina………….Mexico by one goal to nil in the match.A. beat B. scored C. won D. knocked4. After his father died . He must stand …….. his own feet .A. with B. up C. in D. on5. We acted under orders ………. our Boss .A. over B. into C. from D. along6. . ………. of the bad weather , they still went out .A. Because B. Despite C. Although D. In spite7. He wants to get to the top before he is thirty years old . He is very …A. ambitious B. intelligent C. tall D. industrial8. On the way to school , I came …my old friend after many years away .A. on B. across C. along D. back9. I am one of your closed friends, ……………….?D. am I B. will I C. aren’t I A. am not I10. Mr. Hao is busy ................... money.A. earning B. earn C. earned D. to earnQuestion 6: Read the passage and then choose the best answer.Nowaday people are more aware that wildlife all over the world is in (1).......... Manyspecies of animals are threatened, and could easily become (2).......if we donot make an effortto (3)......... them. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, animals are (4) .........fortheir fur or for other valuable parts of their bodies. Some birds, such as parrots, are caught(5).......... and sold as pets. For many animals and birds, the problem is that their habitat theplace where they live is ............(6)......... More ...(7)........is used for farms, for houses andindustry, and there are fewer open spaces than there once were. Farmers are use fowerfulchemicals to help them grow better (8)......but these chemials pollute the environment and...(9)........wildlife. The most successful animals on earth human beings will soon be theonly ones (10)...........unless we can solve this problem.1.A. problem B. threat C. vanishing D. danger2.A. vanished B. extint C. empty D. disappeared3.A. protect B. defend C. harm D. serve4.A. extint B. game C. hunted D. chased5.A. lively B. alive C. for life D. for living6.A. exhausting B. departing C. escaping D. disappearing7.A. area B. land C. soil D. earth8.A. products B. crops C. fields D. herbs
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ĐỀ THI HỌC KỲ: Môn học : Hệ Thống Sản Xuất Linh Hoạt FMS & CIM

ĐỀ THI HỌC KỲ: MÔN HỌC : HỆ THỐNG SẢN XUẤT LINH HOẠT FMS & CIM

1. CNC stands ...................................................................................... 2. The CNC machine is a good application for robot loading and unloading because the task ............................................................... 3. Material to be processed in the milling machine is fastened into a device called a .................................................................................. 4. DVD stands for devices ................................................................... 5. A robot controller is interfaced to a CNC machine through its digital ............................................................................................... 6. The........................of a robot controller can be connected to various low power output device which allow the robot to control many types of external equipment in a workcell. 7. The vise is closed by turning the output ........................................... 1. Straight line movement is a characteristic of robots prossesing ........................................................................................geometries. 2. Robots unsing this geometry have rotational movement (waist), and two straight – line or “linear” movements. 3. The ………………………....robot geometry configuration has two rotation movements (waist and shoulder ) and a third which is linear. 4. The............................... robot geometry describes a robot with joint and movements which resemble the movements of human joints. 5. The..............................s the boundary desceribed by fully extended position of each robot axis as it extends though its full range of motion. 6. One advantage of a robot with a double – jointed design is that it can service a lager .....................................................................area.
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13510 THE SANTA CLAUS SONG ACTIVITY FOR A YOUTUBE VIDEO

13510 THE SANTA CLAUS SONG ACTIVITY FOR A YOUTUBE VIDEO

Go to Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgFSSPlzBl4&amp;feature=relatedSanta Claus, Santa ClausSanta Claus, Santa ClausWe all love youSanta ClausPlay the video and T or F your answers:With your bright red suit and your long white beardYour floppy hat that covers your earsSanta Claus you're the bestYou carry your presents in a sackAnd you put them under the treeHope you bring one for me1. Santa has a red coat, a white beard,black boots and green mittens ____.2. Santa puts five presents under thetree_____.3. There are six reindeer in front ofSanta’s sleigh_____.4. Santa can go through key holes_____.5. There is a glass of milk a cookie and acarrot for Santa in the window_____.6. Children all over the world are waitingfor Santa_____.7. Santa is not tobogganing_____.8. It stops snowing at the end of themovie_____.You fly through the sky on a shiny sleigh
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Platform Scale (revised edition) How an emerging business model helps startups build large empires with minimum investment

Platform Scale (revised edition) How an emerging business model helps startups build large empires with minimum investment

Over the last decade or so, were seeing the emergence of a new form of scale. Todays massively scaling startups which rapidly grow to millions of users and billions in valuation do not sell a product or service. Instead, they build a platform on which others can create and exchange value. The many manifestations of the platform business model social media, the peer economy, cryptocurrencies, APIs and developer ecosystems, the Internet of things, crowdsourcing models, and many others are becoming increasingly relevant. Yet, most new platform ideas fail because the business design and growth strategies involved in building platforms are not well understood. Platform Scale lays out a structured approach to designing and growing a platform business model and addresses the key factors leading to the success and failure of these businesses.Six core concepts for successful platform business model design 1. Reimagine your business for platform scale The mechanism by which these new business models scale so rapidly. Understand the shift in thinking needed to manage businesses with platform scale and the impact of network effects, virality, behavior design and data.We are not in the business of building software. We are in the business of enabling interactions. 2. Leverage interactionfirst design How detailed consideration around designing the producerconsumer core interaction is critical for building business models that leverage platform scale.The design of the platform business model involves the design of a core interaction followed by the design of an open infrastructure that will enable and govern this interaction. 3. Build cumulative value and minimize interaction failure Know the key managerial decisions to focus on while managing platform scale businesses, all geared towards maximizing the ability of these businesses to enable interactions by scaling producer participation and minimizing interaction failure.Platform scale is achieved by maximizing the repeatability and efficiency of the platforms core interaction. 4. Solve chicken and egg problems Platform business models face an all too familiar catch22 chicken and egg problem on the way to scaling. This can be overcome by designing the conditions for sparking interactions.The solution to the chickenandegg problem requires a bait that can break the vicious cycle of no activity. 5. Design viral engines. Understand the drivers of viral growth in a world of networks and apply the viral canvas designfirst approach to viral growth.Virality is a business design problem, not a marketing or engineering effort. It requires design before optimization. 6. Account for reverse network effects Consider the counter view on platform scale and be on the lookout for conditions where scale can be detrimental to platform businesses.The goal of platform scale is to ensure the simultaneous scaling of quantity and quality, of interactions. Platform Scale is a makers guide for entrepreneurs, innovators and educators looking to understand and implement the inner workings of highly scalable platform business models.
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SupplySide Considerations: Waterways, Ports, and Fleet

SUPPLYSIDE CONSIDERATIONS: WATERWAYS, PORTS, AND FLEET

The Ministry of Transport (MoT) is responsible for regulating and overseeing all transport modes as well as the shipbuilding industry.1 It is also in charge of overall national transport planning and is responsible for ensuring that local and provincial infrastructure development is in accordance with the national transport plan. MoT coordinates with other central government agencies, such as the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) and the Ministry of Finance (MoF). MoT reports to the Office of the Government. MPI is responsible for prioritizing projects and allocating budgets. The cooperation between MPI and MoT is therefore critical for all physical works planned in Vietnam. Budgets are then provided through MoF. Several specialized management agencies reside under MoT, the most important of which are the Vietnam Inland Waterway Administration (VIWA), Vietnam Maritime Administration (Vinamarine), Vietnam WaterwayConstruction Corporation (Vinawaco, which specializes in dredging), and Vietnam Register (for fleet registration and quality assurance). The Vietnam National Shipping Lines (Vinalines) and the Vietnam Shipbuilding Industry Group (Vinashin) reside under the Office of the Government. Most of the larger waterways and river ports are managed and administered by VIWA, while Vinamarine administers the coastal waterways and the large seaports.2 Smaller waterways and ports are controlled directly by provincial governments. MoT also has the administrative responsibility for several education institutes, including Vietnam Maritime Universit
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