OTHER SYSTEMS AND METHODS

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "OTHER SYSTEMS AND METHODS":

BIOTERRORISM potx

BIOTERRORISM POTX

based diagnostic methods. False negative results could be obtained if a gene or protein structure of the toxin differ from what established oligonucleotides/PCR primers or antibodies can recognize. At the very least, assay performance needs to be established on as many toxin sero- and subtypes as practical. Reagents generated for detection assays should ideally recognize all known subtypes of each serotype. 3.3 Matrix effects In almost all scenarios, BoNT samples to be tested would be found in a wide variety of matrices of food, clinical (serum, sputum, feces, etc) or environmental samples (dust, soil, water, etc). Yet, most assay methods are designed, tested and optimized in buffer conditions and thus the sensitivity or application in complex matrices may be diminished. Complex matrices may contain many challenging conditions such as high fat, high protein or salt content, low or high pH; the presence of other active proteases could also interfere with detection sensitivity, increase background signal, and give false positive or negative signals. Methods to alleviate matrix interference range from simple sample dilution, pH rebalancing, addition of protease inhibitors, to specific affinity binding steps prior to detection. Extensive analysis of different matrices will be necessary to evaluate assay sensitivity and determine the best methods to circumvent matrix effects on assay performance. 3.4 Activity The potent toxicity associated with BoNTs is attributed to their enzymatic properties. The differentiation of active versus inactive forms of the toxin is needed for proper risk assessment and should be an important consideration in assay design. An active BoNT has many roles, it must be able to bind host cell receptors, translocate across membranes and finally reach the host cell cytosol and cleave its target protein. Few assays can measure all aspects of toxin function. Immunoassays (IA) can generally detect both active and inactive toxin and may give false positive results even when no active toxin is present. However, positive results from IA requiring the presence of both HC and LC are predictive of active toxin (Stanker et al, 2008). Assays measuring endopeptidase activities of BoNTs are available but are not as sensitive and amenable to use in complex matrices. Genomic methods, while sensitive, detect the presence of toxin genes but not that of toxin. Depending on the diagnostic needs, a combination of methods may have to be used to get a full activity profile
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AFTERLIFE AND OTHER STORIES

AFTERLIFE AND OTHER STORIES

IN MEMORIAM “It‟s wake-up time.” The boy rolled over and pulled the covers over his head.

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SUPPLIANT MAIDENS AND OTHER PLAYS

SUPPLIANT MAIDENS AND OTHER PLAYS

The king puts the question to the popular vote, and the demand of the suitors is unanimously rejected: the play closes with thanks and gratitude on the part of the fugitives, who, in lyrical strains of quiet beauty, seem to refer the whole question of their marriage to the subsequent decision of the gods, and, in particular, of Aphrodite. Of the second portion of the Trilogy we can only speak conjecturally. There is a passage in the Prometheus Bound (ll. 860-69), in which we learn that the maidens were somehow reclaimed by the suitors, and that all, except one, slew their bridegrooms on the wedding night. There is a faint trace, among the Fragments of Aeschylus, of a play called Thalamopoioi,--i.e. The Preparers of the Chamber,--which may well have referred to this tragic scene. Its grim title will recall to all classical readers the magnificent, though terrible, version of the legend, in the final stanzas of the eleventh poem in the third book of Horace's Odes. The final play was probably called The Danaides, and described the acquittal of the brides through some intervention of Aphrodite: a fragment of it survives, in which the goddess appears to be pleading her special prerogative. The legends which commit the daughters of Danaus to an eternal penalty in Hades are, apparently, of later origin. Homer is silent on any such penalty; and Pindar, Aeschylus' contemporary, actually describes the once suppliant maidens as honourably enthroned (Pyth. ix. 112: Nem. x. ll. 1-10). The Tartarean part of the story is, in fact, post-Aeschylean. The Suppliant Maidens is full of charm, though the text of the part which describes the arrival of the pursuers at Argos is full of uncertainties. It remains a fine, though archaic, poem, with this special claim on our interest, that it is, probably, the earliest extant poetic drama. We see in it the tendency to grandiose language, not yet fully developed as in the Prometheus: the inclination of youth to simplicity, and even platitude, in religious and general speculation: and yet we recognize, as in the germ, the profound theology of the Agamemnon, and a touch of the political vein which appears more fully in the Furies. If the precedence in time here ascribed to it is correct, the play is perhaps worth more recognition than it has received from the countrymen of Shakespeare. The Persians has been placed second in this volume, as the oldest play whose date is certainly known. It was brought out in 472 B.C., eight years after the sea-fight of Salamis which it commemorates, and five years before the Seven against Thebes (467 B.C.). It is
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Tài liệu Thời gian thực - hệ thống P1 doc

TÀI LIỆU THỜI GIAN THỰC - HỆ THỐNG P1 DOC

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONThe correctness of many systems and devices in our modern society depends notonly on the effects or results they produce but also on the time at which these resultsare produced. These real-time systems range from the anti-lock braking controller inautomobiles to the vital-sign monitor in hospital intensive-care units. For example,when the driver of a car applies the brake, the anti-lock braking controller analyzesthe environment in which the controller is embedded (car speed, road surface, direc-tion of travel) and activates the brake with the appropriate frequency within fractionsof a second. Both the result (brake activation) and the time at which the result isproduced are important in ensuring the safety of the car, its driver, and passengers.Recently, computer hardware and software are increasingly embedded in a ma-jority of these real-time systems to monitor and control their operations. Thesecomputer systems are called embedded systems, real-time computer systems, orsimply real-time systems. Unlike conventional, non-real-time computer systems,real-time computer systems are closely coupled with the environment being mon-itored and controlled. Examples of real-time systems include computerized ver-sions of the braking controller and the vital-sign monitor, the new generation ofairplane and spacecraft avionics, the planned Space Station control software, high-performance network and telephone switching systems, multimedia tools, virtualreality systems, robotic controllers, battery-powered instruments, wireless commu-nication devices (such as cellular phones and PDAs), astronomical telescopes withadaptive-optics systems, and many safety-critical industrial applications. These em-bedded systems must satisfy stringent timing and reliability constraints in additionto functional correctness requirements.Figure 1.1 shows a model of a real-time system. A real-time system has a deci-sion component that interacts with the external environment (in which the decision1Real-Time Systems: Scheduling, Analysis, and Verification. Albert M. K. ChengCopyright¶ 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Demonstration problem barfield raiborn kinney cost accounting_5 docx

DEMONSTRATION PROBLEM BARFIELD RAIBORN KINNEY COST ACCOUNTING 5 DOCX

reorientation should indicate any existing quality problems so that managers canset goals and identify methods for quality improvements. The system should alsobe capable (possibly through the use of statistical methods) of measuring qualityand providing feedback on quality improvements. Last, the system should encourageteamwork in the quality improvement process. In other words, the system shouldmove an organization away from product inspection (finding and correcting prob-lems at the end of the process) to proactive quality assurance (building quality intothe process so that problems do not occur).Employee InvolvementTQM recognizes that all organizational levels share the responsibility for product/service quality. These new interactions among employee levels are changing the waymanagers do their jobs. Upper-level management must be involved in the qualityprocess, develop an atmosphere that is conducive to quality improvements, set anexample of commitment to TQM, provide constructive feedback about opportuni-ties for improvement, and provide positive feedback when improvements are made.Workers should believe they are part of the process of success, not the creators ofproblems. Encouraging employee suggestions and training workers to handle multiplejob functions help improve efficiency and quality. At Solectron, for example, multi-functional work teams are commonly used to facilitate effective problem solving. Thefollowing News Note on page 312 discusses some U.K. companies’ use of employeesuggestion plans as an integral part of this continuous improvement process.Product/Service ImprovementTotal quality management focuses attention on the relationship between the inter-nal production/service process and the external customer. This approach has des-ignated consumer expectations as the ultimate arbiter of satisfaction. Therefore,TQM requires that companies first know who their customers are.In analyzing their customers, companies may want to stop serving some groupsof customers based on cost-benefit analyses. Some customers simply cost morethan they add in revenues and/or other benefits to the organization. Each revenuedollar does not contribute equally to organizational profitability because the cost
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Báo cáo khoa học: Cell-free protein synthesis ppt

BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC: CELL-FREE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS PPT

MINIREVIEW SERIESCell-free protein synthesisNicholas E. DixonResearch School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaCell-free protein synthesis using cell extracts fromEscherichia coli, wheat germ and rabbit reticulocyteshas been used for over 40 years to produce smallamounts of radiolabeled proteins for identification ofgene products and other applications. In the E. colisystem programmed with plasmid DNA, the cellextract contains or is supplemented with an RNA po-lymerase to transcribe the gene, and the mRNAs aretranslated by a complex mixture that contains ribo-somes and a full complement of initiation, elongationand termination factors, as well as a full set of amino-acyl-tRNA synthetases and other required enzymes.The presence of molecular chaperones, protein disul-fide and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases generallyensures that proteins are correctly folded into soluble,active forms. With the eukaryotic extracts, it has addi-tionally been possible to program protein synthesisdirectly with in vitro transcribed mRNA that can beproduced directly from PCR products, and the pres-ence of factors responsible for post-translational modi-fication of proteins ensures the production of fullyfunctional gene products.Given the simplicity of these systems, it is not sur-prising that considerable effort has been invested overthe past two decades to improve their productivity andefficiency. The key breakthroughs were the develop-ment of methods for continuous feeding of amino
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manhattan test 3

MANHATTAN TEST 3

Opening Exam Directions Welcome to Manhattan GMAT's simulated exam platform! This platform is designed specifically for the Internet Explorer web browser. (Other browsers may work but are not explicitly supported.) In order to ensure an optimal simulated experience, please adjust your browser window so that you can see all of the buttons on the bottom of the exam interface without needing to scroll down. You should NOT see an active vertical scroll bar on the right of your browser window. If you do see an active vertical scroll bar on the right side of your browser window, go to the VIEW menu at the top of the Internet Explorer window, then select TOOLBARS, and uncheck as many toolbars as necessary to eliminate the active vertical scroll bar. After doing this, you will no longer need to scroll down to see the buttons on the bottom of the exam interface. At the end of the exam, you may go back and re-check these toolbars to return to your normal view. If you have any questions, please contact us at techsupport@manhattangmat.com or call 800-576-GMAT (4628). Good luck practicing! Note: GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council which neither sponsors nor endorses this test preparation service.
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Báo cáo khoa học: "EXPERT SYSTEMS AND OTHER NEW TECHNIQUES IN MT SYSTEMS " ppt

BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC EXPERT SYSTEMS AND OTHER NEW TECHNIQUES IN MT SYSTEMS PPT

pond to one string, and, conversely, many strings may correspond to one tree. Working with B. Vauquois in this direction, S. Chappuy has developed a formalism of static ~rammars (7), presented in charts expressing the relation between strings of terminal elements (usually decorations expressing the result of some morphological analysis) and multilevel structural descriptors. This formalism is currently being used for all new linguistic developments at GETA. Of course, this is not a completely new idea. For example, M. Kay (|3) proposed the formalism of unification grammars for quite the same purpose. But his formalism is more algebraic and less geometric in nature, and we prefer to use a speci- fication in terms of the kind of structures we are accustomed to manipulating. 2 - Grafting o n expert systems Seeing that linguistic expertise is already quite well represented and handled in current ("closed") systems, we are orienting our research towards the possibility of addin~ extralinguistic knowledge (knowledge about some technical or scien- tific field, for instance) to existing CAT systems. Also, because current systems are based on trans- ducers rather than on analyzers, it is perfectly possible that the result of analysis or of transfer (the "structural descriptors") are partially incorrect and need correction. Knowledge about the types of errors made by linguistic systems may be
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Báo cáo hóa học: "Research Article Nonlinear Systems of Second-Order ODEs Patricio Cerda and Pedro Ubilla" doc

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: "RESEARCH ARTICLE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF SECOND-ORDER ODES PATRICIO CERDA AND PEDRO UBILLA" DOC

: X→X is compact, and the cone C is invariant under Fλ.Proof Outline. The compactness of Fλfollows from the well-known Arzel´a-Ascoli theorem. Theinvariance of the cone C is a consequence of the fact that the nonlinearities are nonnegative.In Section 5, we will give an existence result of the truncation system 2.3. The proofwill be based on the following well-known fixed point result due to Krasnosel’skii, which westate without proof compare 8, 9.Lemma 4.2. Let C be a cone in a Banach space, and let F : C→C be a compact operator such thatF00. Suppose there exists an r>0 verifyinga u/ tFu, for all u  r and t ∈ 0, 1; suppose further that there exist a compact homotopyH : 0, 1 × C→C and an R>rsuch thatb FuH0,u, for all u ∈ C;c Ht, u/ u, for all u  R and t ∈ 0, 1;d H1,u/ u, for all u≤R.Then F has a fixed point u0verifying r<u0
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Báo cáo hóa học: " Research Article Nonlinear Systems of Second-Order ODEs Patricio Cerda and Pedro Ubilla" ppt

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC: " RESEARCH ARTICLE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF SECOND-ORDER ODES PATRICIO CERDA AND PEDRO UBILLA" PPT

H4 allows us to have a control on the nonlinear operator in system 1.1.We remark that, the case when a1sa2s1andg1u, vg2u, v0, systemsof type 1.1 have been extensively studied in the literature under different sets of conditionson the nonlinearities. For instance, assuming superlinear hypothesis, many authors have ob-tained multiplicity of solutions with applications to elliptic systems in annular domains. Forhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, see de Figueiredo and Ubilla 1, Conti et al.2, Dunninger and Wang 3, 4 and Wang 5. For nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary con-ditions, see Lee 6 and do´Oetal.7. Our main goal is to study systems of type 1.1 byconsidering local superlinear assumptions at ∞ and global superlinear at zero.The main result is the following.Theorem 1.1. Assume hypotheses (H1) through (H4). Then system 1.1 has at least one positive solu-tion.One o f the main difficulties here lies in the facts that the coefficients of the differentialoperators of System 1.1 are nonlinear and that they may not necessarily be bounded from
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Designation: C 59/C 59M – 00 - Gypsum Casting Plaster and Gypsum Molding Plaster1 pdf

DESIGNATION: C 59/C 59M – 00 - GYPSUM CASTING PLASTER AND GYPSUM MOLDING PLASTER1 PDF

Designation: C 59/C 59M – 00Standard Specification forGypsum Casting Plaster and Gypsum Molding Plaster1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 59/C 59M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope *1.1 This specification covers gypsum casting plaster andgypsum molding plaster materials consisting essentially ofcalcined gypsum.1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI (metric)units are to be regarded as standard. Within the text, the SIunits are shown in brackets. The values stated in each systemshall be used independently of the other. Values from the twosystems shall not be combined.1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotesthat provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotesshall not be considered as requirements of the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:C 11 Terminology Relating to Gypsum and Related Build-ing Materials and Systems2C 471 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Gypsum andGypsum Products2C 472 Test Methods for Physical Testing of Gypsum, Gyp-sum Plasters and Gypsum Concrete2
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Báo cáo sinh học: " Research Article Time-Frequency Data Reduction for Event Related Potentials: Combining Principal Component Analysis and Matching Pursuit" pot

BÁO CÁO SINH HỌC RESEARCH ARTICLE TIME FREQUENCY DATA REDUCTION FOR EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS COMBINING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS AND MATCHING PURSUIT POT

used matching pursuit (MP) approach, with a Gabor dictionary, to principal components extracted from the time-frequencydomain. The proposed PCA-Gabor decomposition is compared with other time-frequency data reduction methods such as thetime-frequency PCA approach alone and standard matching pursuit methods using a Gabor dictionary for both simulated andbiological data. The results show that the proposed PCA-Gabor approach performs better than either the PCA alone or the standardMP data reduction methods, by using the smallest amount of ERP data variance to produce the strongest statistical separationbetween experimental conditions.1. IntroductionEvent-related potential (ERP) signals measured at the scalpare produced by partial synchronization of neuronal fieldpotentials across the cortex [1]. This synchronization medi-ates the “top-down” and “bottom-up” communication bothwithin and between brain areas and has particular impor-tance during the anticipation of and attention to stimulior events. Event related potentials (ERPs) are obtained byaveraging EEG signals recorded over multiple trials or epochstime-locked to the particular stimulus. ERP signal analysishas proven to be effective in assessing the brain’s currentfunctional state and reflect many pathological processes (e.g.,[2–6]).Typically, ERP analysis is performed in the time domain,where the amplitudes and latencies of prominent peaks inthe averaged potentials are usually measured and correlatedwith information processing mechanisms. However, thisconventional approach has two major shortcomings. First,it is well-known that ERPs are transient and nonstationarysignals. Second, ERPs generally contain multiple overlappingprocesses operating across different time and frequencyranges. A primary approach to this problem has beento utilize time-frequency signal representations to detecttransient activity and to disentangle overlapping processes.
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Designation: C 442/C 442M – 99a - Gypsum Backing Board, Gypsum Coreboard, and Gypsum Shaftliner Board1 pot

DESIGNATION: C 442/C 442M – 99A - GYPSUM BACKING BOARD, GYPSUM COREBOARD, AND GYPSUM SHAFTLINER BOARD1 POT

-in. [19.0-mm]thick or 2-in. [50.8-mm] deep for boards 1-in. [25.4-mm] thick,spaced 24-in. [610-mm] on centers and 25-gage steel track atthe perimeter of the partition. “H” members shall be formedwith a single web or shall be two pieces of perimeter trackfastened together along the web with screws spaced 25-in.[610-mm] on centers.4.5.2.2 Temperature rise on the unexposed surface shall bemeasured using not less than five thermocouples; one shall belocated at the center of the assembly and one shall be locatedat the center of each quadrant. Thermocouples shall be locatednot less than 3 in. [76-mm] from an “H” member.NOTE 1—Consult gypsum backing board producers for independent testdata on assembly details and fire resistance classifications for other typesof construction. See official fire test reports for assembly particulars,materials, and classifications.4.6 Gypsum backing board shall have a flame spread indexof not more than 25 when tested in accordance with TestMethod E 84.5. Physical Properties5.1 Specimens shall be taken from the samples obtained inaccordance with Specification C 1264/C 1264M.5.2 Specimens shall be tested in accordance with TestMethods C 473.5.2.1 Flexural Strength—The specimens shall be tested faceup and face down. The average breaking load shall be not lessthan the following:Thickness, in.[mm]Method A Method B
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Designation: C 37/C 37M – 99 - Gypsum Lath1 docx

DESIGNATION: C 37/C 37M – 99 - GYPSUM LATH1 DOCX

Designation: C 37/C 37M – 99Standard Specification forGypsum Lath1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 37/C 37M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope *1.1 This specification covers plain and foil-backed types ofgypsum lath which is designed to be used as a base forapplication of gypsum plaster (see Specification C 28).1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI (metric)units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text,the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in eachsystem shall be used independent of the other. Values from thetwo systems shall not be combined.1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotesthat provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes(excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be consideredas requirements of the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:C 11 Terminology Relating to Gypsum and Related Build-ing Materials and Systems2C 28 Specification for Gypsum Plasters2C 473 Test Methods for Physical Testing of Gypsum PanelProducts2
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The Finite Element Method Fifth edition Volume 1: The Basis.Professor O.C. Zienkiewicz, CBE, FRS, pptx

THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FIFTH EDITION VOLUME 1: THE BASIS.PROFESSOR O.C. ZIENKIEWICZ, CBE, FRS, PPTX

size of each of these volumes expanded geometrically (from 272 pages in 1967 to thefourth edition of 1455 pages in two volumes). This was necessary to do justice to arapidly expanding ®eld of professional application and research. Even so, much ®lter-ing of the contents was necessary to keep these editions within reasonable bounds.It seems that a new edition is necessary every decade as the subject is expanding andmany important developments are continuously occurring. The present ®fth edition isindeed motivated by several important developments which have occurred in the 90s.These include such subjects as adaptive error control, meshless and point basedmethods, new approaches to ¯uid dynamics, etc. However, we feel it is importantnot to increase further the overall size of the book and we therefore have eliminatedsome redundant material.Further, the reader will notice the present subdivision into three volumes, in which the®rst volume provides the general basis applicable to linear problems in many ®elds whilstthe second and third volumes are devoted to more advanced topics in solid and ¯uidmechanics, respectively. This arrangement will allow a general student to studyVolume 1 whilst a specialist can approach their topics with the help of Volumes 2 and3. Volumes 2 and 3 are much smaller in size and addressed to more specialized readers.It is hoped that Volume 1 will help to introduce postgraduate students, researchersand practitioners to the modern concepts of ®nite element methods. In Volume 1 westress the relationship between the ®nite element method and the more classic ®nitedierence and boundary solution methods. We show that all methods of numericalapproximation can be cast in the same format and that their individual advantagescan thus be retained.Although Volume 1 is not written as a course text book, it is nevertheless directed atstudents of postgraduate level and we hope these will ®nd it to be of wide use. Math-ematical concepts are stressed throughout and precision is maintained, although littleuse is made of modern mathematical symbols to ensure wider understanding amongstengineers and physical scientists.In Volumes 1, 2 and 3 the chapters on computational methods are much reduced bytransferring the computer source programs to a web site.
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BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS, DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS Edited by Zahid Riaz. pot

BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS, DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS EDITED BY ZAHID RIAZ. POT

technology playing a critical role in our society to assist questions related to the identity of individuals in a global world. “Who is this person?”, “Is this the person he/she claims to be?”, “Should this individual be given access to our system or building?”, etc. These are examples of the every day questions asked by many organizations in the fields of telecommunication, financial services, health care, electronic commerce, governments and others all over the world. The requirements and needs of quantity data and information processing are growing by the day. Also, people’s global mobility is becoming an everyday matter as is the necessity to ensure modern and discreet identification systems from different real and virtual access points on a global basis. Reliability of Fingerprint Biometry (Weibull Approach) 5 3. Quality parameters of biometrics technologies (ER, FRR, FAR, SL, EC) In order to adopt biometric technologies such as fingerprint, iris, face, hand geometry and voice etc., we will evaluate some factors including the ease of use, error rate and cost. When we evaluate the score for each of the biometric technologies, we find that there is a range between the upper and lower scores for each item evaluated. Therefore we have to recognize that there is no perfect biometric technology. For example, if a biometric system uses fingerprint technology, we will determine several factors as follows: a. What is the error rate (ER), as we use the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) or False Rejection Rate (FRR) that the system will allow? b. False Acceptance Rate (FAR) is the probability that a biometrics verification device will fail to reject an impostor. c. False Rejection Rate (FRR) is the probability that a biometrics verification device will fail to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an enrolee. d. What is the security level (SL) to protect privacy and fraud that the system will require? e. Which environmental conditions (EC) for sensing fingerprints will be considered as dry or wet and dusty on the glass of a fingerprint scanner?
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The Finite Element Method Fifth edition Volume 1: The Basis.Professor O.C. Zienkiewicz docx

THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FIFTH EDITION VOLUME 1: THE BASIS.PROFESSOR O.C. ZIENKIEWICZ DOCX

size of each of these volumes expanded geometrically (from 272 pages in 1967 to thefourth edition of 1455 pages in two volumes). This was necessary to do justice to arapidly expanding ®eld of professional application and research. Even so, much ®lter-ing of the contents was necessary to keep these editions within reasonable bounds.It seems that a new edition is necessary every decade as the subject is expanding andmany important developments are continuously occurring. The present ®fth edition isindeed motivated by several important developments which have occurred in the 90s.These include such subjects as adaptive error control, meshless and point basedmethods, new approaches to ¯uid dynamics, etc. However, we feel it is importantnot to increase further the overall size of the book and we therefore have eliminatedsome redundant material.Further, the reader will notice the present subdivision into three volumes, in which the®rst volume provides the general basis applicable to linear problems in many ®elds whilstthe second and third volumes are devoted to more advanced topics in solid and ¯uidmechanics, respectively. This arrangement will allow a general student to studyVolume 1 whilst a specialist can approach their topics with the help of Volumes 2 and3. Volumes 2 and 3 are much smaller in size and addressed to more specialized readers.It is hoped that Volume 1 will help to introduce postgraduate students, researchersand practitioners to the modern concepts of ®nite element methods. In Volume 1 westress the relationship between the ®nite element method and the more classic ®nitedierence and boundary solution methods. We show that all methods of numericalapproximation can be cast in the same format and that their individual advantagescan thus be retained.Although Volume 1 is not written as a course text book, it is nevertheless directed atstudents of postgraduate level and we hope these will ®nd it to be of wide use. Math-ematical concepts are stressed throughout and precision is maintained, although littleuse is made of modern mathematical symbols to ensure wider understanding amongstengineers and physical scientists.In Volumes 1, 2 and 3 the chapters on computational methods are much reduced bytransferring the computer source programs to a web site.
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SEARCH ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS pps

SEARCH ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATIONS

Resultantly, augmenting hill climbing with memory is applied and turns out to be effective [5]. In addition, for many real-world problems, an exhaustive search for solutions is not a practical proposition. It is common then to resort to some kind of heuristic approach as defined below: heuristic search algorithm for tackling optimization problems is any algorithm that applies a heuristic to search through promising solutions in order to find a good solution. This heuristic search allows the bypass of the “combinatorial explosion” problem [6]. Those techniques discussed above are all classified into heuristics involved with random move, population, memory and probability model [7]. Some of the best-known heuristic search methods are genetic algorithm (GA), tabu search and simulated annealing, etc A standard GA has two drawbacks: premature convergence and lack of good local search ability [8]. In order to overcome these disadvantages of GA in numerical optimization problems, differential evolution (DE) algorithm has been introduced by Storn and Price [9]. In the past 20 years, swarm intelligence computation [10] has been attracting more and more attention of researchers, and has a special connection with the evolution strategy and the genetic algorithm [11]. Swarm intelligence is an algorithm or a device and illumined by the social behavior of gregarious insects and other animals, which is designed for solving distributed problems. There is no central controller directing the behavior of the swarm; rather, these systems are self-organizing. This means that the complex and constructive collective behavior emerges from the individuals (agents) who follow some simple rules and Search Algorithms and Applications 4 communicate with each other and their environments. Swarms offer several advantages over traditional systems based on deliberative agents and central control: specifically robustness, flexibility, scalability, adaptability, and suitability for analysis. Since 1990's, two typical swarm intelligence algorithms have emerged. One is the particle swarm optimization (PSO) [12], and the other is the ant colony optimization (ACO) [13]. In this chapter, two recently proposed swarm intelligence algorithms are introduced. They are seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) [3, 14-19] and stochastic focusing search (SFS) [20, 21], respectively.
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Designation: C 79/C 79M – 00 - Treated Core and Nontreated Core Gypsum Sheathing Board1 doc

DESIGNATION: C 79/C 79M – 00 - TREATED CORE AND NONTREATED CORE GYPSUM SHEATHING BOARD1 DOC

Designation: C 79/C 79M – 00Standard Specification forTreated Core and Nontreated Core Gypsum SheathingBoard1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 79/C 79M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope *1.1 This specification covers treated core and nontreatedcore gypsum sheathing, which is designed to be used as asheathing on buildings.1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI (metric)units are to be regarded separately as the standard. Within thetext, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated ineach system shall be used independently of the other. Valuesfrom the two systems shall not be combined.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:C 11 Terminology Relating to Gypsum and Related Build-ing Materials and Systems2C 473 Test Methods for Physical Testing of Gypsum BoardProducts and Gypsum Lath2C 645 Specification for Nonstructural Steel Framing Mem-bers2C 1264/C1264M Specification for Sampling, Inspection,Rejection, Certification, Packaging, Marking, Shipping,
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Báo cáo hóa học: "Research Article Existence of Solutions for a Class of Elliptic Systems in RN Involving the p x , q x -Laplacia" pptx

BÁO CÁO HÓA HỌC RESEARCH ARTICLE EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS FOR A CLASS OF ELLIPTIC SYSTEMS IN RN INVOLVING THE P X Q X LAPLACIA PPTX

and Sobolev spaceW1,px1–5 have been a subject of active research stimulated mainly by the developmentof the studies of problems in elasticity, electrorheological fluids, image processing, flow inporous media, calculus of variations, and differential equations with px-growth conditions6–13.Among these problems, the study of px-Laplacian problems via variational methodsis an interesting topic. A lot of researchers have devoted their work to this area 14–22.2 Journal of Inequalities and ApplicationsThe operator Δpxu : div|∇u|px−2∇u is called px-Laplacian, where p is a continuousnonconstant function. In particular, if px ≡ p constant, it is the well-known p-Laplacianoperator. However, the px-Laplace operator possesses more complicated nonlinearity thanp-Laplace operator due to the fact that Δpxis not homogeneous. This fact implies somedifficulties, as for example, we cannot use the Lagrange multiplier theorem and Morsetheorem in a lot of problems involving this operator.In literature, elliptic systems with standard and nonstandard growth conditions havebeen studied by many authors 23–28, where the nonlinear function F have different andmixed growth conditions and assumptions in each paper.In 29, the authors show the existence of nontrivial solutions for the following p-Laplacian problem:−Δpu 
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