INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW PRIMER

Tìm thấy 3,368 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW PRIMER":

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW PROFFESIONAL PRACTICE GUIDES WWW BIT LY TAIHO123

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW PROFFESIONAL PRACTICE GUIDES WWW BIT LY TAIHO123

4INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAWof 14 years was a right granted to the author. This led to a good deal of litigation as to whowas entitled to what.Not the least of the questions that were litigated was when was a book a book. Music sheetswere held to be books and dramatic works also came within the concept of a book. WilliamHogarth succeeded in persuading Parliament to pass the Engraving Copyright Act in 1734.This Act also extended the period of protection and in 1814 statutory copyright in publishedbooks was extended to a period of 28 years or the author’s life, whichever was longer.Copyright in sculptures, maps, charts and plans followed in subsequent legislation andno registration of these was required at Stationers Hall. The Fine Arts Copyright Act in1862 covered paintings, drawings and photographs for the life of the author and seven yearsafter death.Then, on 1 July 1912, the Copyright Act 1911 brought provisions on copyright underone umbrella for the very first time. That act dispensed with the requirement to registercopyright. It also incorporated provisions, which complied with the Berne Convention oncopyright worldwide, and modern copyright was born.In Ireland, with the coming of the Irish Free State, copyright was cast into limbo whenthe Supreme Court held that the Copyright Act 1911 did not form part of Irish law. In a casebrought by the Performing Rights Society (which protected composers and music publishersand was established in 1914) against Bray Urban District Council, the Supreme Court heldthat the unauthorised performance by a band of a musical work on Bray sea-front was notan infringement. This led to the Copyright Preservation Act 1929, but subsequently thePrivy Council held that the Supreme Court was wrong and that the 1911 Act did remain inforce until repealed by the Oireachtas by the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection)Act 1927.Unfortunately from then until last year, copyright protection in Ireland lagged behindother jurisdictions. The Copyright Act 1963 was borrowed largely from the UK Copyright
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THE HANDBOOK OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Business, Policy, and Intellectual Property Law pdf

THE HANDBOOK OF NANOTECHNOLOGY BUSINESS, POLICY, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW PDF

lowing chapters, the history of law and technology warns of the consequencesof the failure by policymakers and regulators to adequately prepare for rapidtechnological progress. For example, misperceptions concerning the envi-ronmental risks of nuclear power and agricultural biotechnology have pre-cluded these domains from realizing their full potential. Patent decisionsmade by courts and the Patent and Trademark Office have created substan-tial barriers to progress in drug discovery and software, and mistakes made bythe Food and Drug Administration have plagued biotechnology for years.But the greatest policy mistakes involve funding. In several instances, poorpreparation and insufficient communication with industry have resulted ingovernment funding of failed technologies. Despite oxygen deprivation from political and regulatory mishaps, how-ever, the flames of past emerging technologies have continued to burn. His-tory may still write a different story about the ability of government toadequately prepare for the advent of nanotechnology. Its far-reaching poten-tial to radically transform the world renders it almost entirely dependentupon government nurturing for its survival. Never before has the flame of atechnological movement relied as much on the oxygen supplied by govern-ment officials as it does the wood provided by scientists. Unfortunately, whilethe scientists are forging ahead, their counterparts in government are laggingbehind. Thus, a rigorous analysis of the legal, political, and regulatory issuesassociated with nanotechnology is urgently needed.Chapter 3The first policy topic that we discuss is whether a “nano” world is desirable.Bill Joy of Sun Microsystems launched the public debate about the wisdomof pursuing nanotechnology research and development by highlighting thefield’s long-term threats. According to Joy, the convergence of nanotechnol-ogy, robotics, and genetic engineering could produce “spiritual machines”that ultimately replace humans. Further, accidental or intentional misuse ofself-replicating nanorobots could result in a catastrophe of cataclysmic pro-
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TAX AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MPI STUDIES ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY COMPETITION AND TAX LAW

TAX AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MPI STUDIES ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY COMPETITION AND TAX LAW

corporate social responsibility and its repercussions in the tax arena, the allocationof tax competences within a company, the requirement to disclose relevant tax information to investors or the necessity to establish a management system for tax riskshave given rise to an emerging strand of literature both from an economic and a legalbackground.This situation has led the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law (Department of Accounting and Taxation) in Munich to organizea conference on this topic – jointly with the International Network for Tax Researchand the International Fiscal Association (German Branch) – in December 2006. Thisconference was meant to bring together leading academics and practitioners fromdifferent backgrounds (lawyers and economists, tax specialists, public accountantsand corporate lawyers, business and government representatives, EC and OECDofficials) in order to give a full and fair account of the interaction between tax andcorporate governance. Two days of concentrated presentations and lively debatebrought some light into this somehow “underresearched” topic.This book contains the papers and proceedings of this conference. It starts witha general introduction into the political, economic and legal implications of theinteraction between tax and corporate governance. It closely examines the influenceof taxation on the life of a corporation and the influence of corporate governance onthe tax behavior of companies. Moreover, it includes a chapter on the tools used inthe fight against tax shelters in several jurisdictions, giving specific weight to thesituation in the U.S. and the U.K.The editor of this book is specifically indebted to Hugh Ault and Caroline Silberztein from the OECD for their invaluable help in the design of this conference. Inaddition, he owes gratitude to the members of the tax research group at the MaxPlanck Institute, in particular to Tobias Beuchert who was instrumental in the preparation both of the conference and of this volume. Moreover, his thanks go to theauthors of this book’s chapters who devoted a lot of time and thoughts to the interaction of “tax and corporate governance”.Munich, January 2008Wolfgang SchönTable of Contents
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Research Contract Template

RESEARCH CONTRACT TEMPLATE

Company will not use the name of Dalhousie, nor of any member of Dalhousie in any publicity without the prior written approval of the Vice President Research or other authorized representative of Dalhousie. Dalhousie will not use the name of Company or any employee of Company, in any publicity without the prior written approval of Company. 9. PUBLICATION The parties agree that it is part of Dalhousie's function to disseminate information and make it available for the purpose of scholarship. It is further recognized that the publication of certain technical information may compromise its commercial value. Company shall be furnished with copies of any proposed disclosure relating to this Agreement at least sixty (60) days in advance of presentation or publication. The Company shall have thirty (30) days after receipt of the proposed disclosure in which to issue a written request that publication or presentation be delayed on the basis that the publication or presentation exposes intellectual property that requires proprietary protection. In the event that written objection is made, the parties shall endeavour to negotiate an acceptable version of the proposed disclosure, including the release date, within the original sixty (60) day notice period. If an acceptable version is not agreed upon, Dalhousie shall be free to publish the original disclosure, subject to provisions of confidentiality, ninety (90) days after receipt of the disclosure by the Company. Disclosure includes articles, seminars, and other oral and written presentations, but does not include theses or other communications submitted for the purpose of academic evaluation. In the event a graduate student of Dalhousie works on the Project and that student completes a thesis or academic report relating to the Project, the student will own the copyright in that thesis or report. Nothing in this Agreement prevents a graduate student or Dalhousie from providing a thesis to examiners for assessment, from holding a public defence of the thesis content or from depositing the thesis with the University
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Tài liệu Intellectual Property on the Internet: What''''s Wrong with Conventional Wisdom? pdf

TÀI LIỆU INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ON THE INTERNET: WHAT''''S WRONG WITH CONVENTIONAL WISDOM? PDF

includes many opportunities for interactive communication and so constitutes a good environment for sequential improvement. It is helpful to examine examples of interactive and sequential innovation on the Web in order to understand the inappropriateness of the traditional intellectual property model here. Some Examples of Interactive and Sequential Innovation Interactive Forums A common example of interactive creation is the interactive forum. As print periodicals have come to the Web, they have frequently set up sites where readers and the public-at-large can submit independent comment and opinion. Typically various forms of dialogue are established with authors of articles that also appear in print. Sometimes these take the form of real-time dialogue and other times e-mail archives. The authors contribute new material and pursue lines of discussion with readers; readers provide feedback and often expand the discussion. The result is a greatly expanded version of "Letters to the Editor," with much more complicated intellectual property rights. One interactive site where intellectual property concerns have come into conflict with uninitiated communication is the Online Guitar Archive (OLGA). OLGA was founded in 1992 by James Bender. It is an archive of some 28,000 user-submitted guitar tablatures as well as guitar lessons and other aids to guitarists. The site, formerly hosted by the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, was highly popular, with users downloading some 200,000 files per week. Guitar tablatures are a form of music notation indicating fret and string fingering and are usually accompanied by song lyrics. Because guitar chords can often be fingered different ways, the tablatures provide 3 performance instructions. In particular, they help guitarists who want to sound like performers on CD's and other recordings. Often, sheet music is not available, and even when it is, it generally does not closely match recording performances. Sheet music is typically notated by musicians other than the original performers. Although it is transcribed from recordings, different musicians typically hear a recording differently and, in any case, commercial sheet music tends to present simplified fingerings with a "pretty" sound. The guitar tablatures found in OLGA are worked out by individual guitarists listening to recordings and represent individual interpretations and fingerings. As such they add unique value to both the recording and to sheet music where it exists. The important economic significance is that the tablatures are a complement to the sound recordings, not a substitute. Both the creator of the tablature and the user learning a song will start by listening to a
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Chuyên đề tốt nghiệp: Giải pháp nâng cao chất lượng tiếp thị truyền thông trực tuyến đối với thương hiệu Johnnie Walker

CHUYÊN ĐỀ TỐT NGHIỆP GIẢI PHÁP NÂNG CAO CHẤT LƯỢNG TIẾP THỊ TRUYỀN THÔNG TRỰC TUYẾN ĐỐI VỚI THƯƠNG HIỆU JOHNNIE WALKER

Theo Tổ chức Sở hữu Trí tuệ Thế giới WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization: _Thương hiệu là một dấu hiệu đặc biệt hữu hình hoặc vơ hình để _ _nhận biết một sản phẩm, một hàng hĩa[r]

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The Global Technology Revolution China, Executive Summary potx

THE GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION CHINA, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY POTX

cutting-edge R&D and technology innovation are as follows:the country’s needs•its national R&D policies•other national policies that could generate demand (or, as appropriate, reduce demand) •for certain TAsintellectual property rights (IPR) protection•finance and banking laws and regulations•local policies, laws, and regulations that could directly affect the ability of individuals and •organizations to conduct cutting-edge R&D and commercialize innovative technologieshuman capital•culture of R&D and innovation.•ese same eight factors will most affect TBNA’s ability to develop and implement the selected TAs. Some of these are clearly either a driver or a barrier throughout most of China. But occasionally, local circumstances make them stronger or weaker drivers or barriers in a particular organization or region (or for a specific TA) than they are elsewhere in the country.Several of these factors are unmistakable barriers in TBNA and hold for all seven TAs. IPR protection, for example, remains a barrier in TBNA, as in China as a whole, to both homegrown innovation and the involvement of foreign capital and talent in new R&D and technology ventures. Finance and banking laws and regulations are also a barrier in TBNA, as they are in China generally, because they discourage investment of venture capital. But, for certain of the seven TAs, sources of venture capital available to TBNA for specific technologies mitigate this barrier to some degree. Lack of a culture of R&D and innovation is a third bar-rier in TBNA, as it is in China as a whole. It discourages the risk-taking in new ventures that is essential to pursuing and commercializing groundbreaking R&D.TBNA has one driver that all seven TAs share: human capital. is stems from the strength of TBNA’s current manufacturing base, the corresponding workforce, and the con-centration of academic institutions in the municipality of Tianjin. However, young Chinese Introduction 7people are tending to shy away from technical and vocational training, and domestic competi-tion for S&E talent is heated. Both of these could be mitigating factors.
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VIẾT TẮT CÁC TỔ CHỨC QUỐC TẾ

VIẾT TẮT CÁC TỔ CHỨC QUỐC TẾ

1* WHO (World Health Organization) : tổ chức y tế thế giới* UNICEF (The United Nations Children's Fund) : quỹ nhi đồng Liên Hợp Quốc* UN (United Nations) : liên hợp quốc* ILO (International Labour Organization) : tổ chức lao động quốc tế* UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) : tổ chức phát triển công nghiệp của Liên Hợp Quốc* WMO (World Meteorological Organization) : tổ chức khí tượng thế giới* WTO (World Trade Organization) : tổ chức thương mại thế giới (hoặc tổ chức mậu dịch thế giới)* ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) : phòng thương mại quốc tế* APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) : diễn đàn hợp tác kinh tế Châu Á - Thái Bình Dương* OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) : tổ chức các nước xuất khẩu dầu lửa* UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law) : ủy ban liên hợp quốc về luật thương mại quốc tế* UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) : hội nghị của liên hợp quốc về thương mại và phát triển* ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) : hội nghị các nguyên thủ quốc gia về hợp tác Á - Âu* ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) : hiệp hội các nước Đông Nam Á* WB (World Bank) : ngân hàng thế giới* TI (Transparency International) : tổ chức minh bạch thế giới* OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) : tổ chức hợp tác và phát triển kinh tế* FATF (Financial Action Task Force) : nhóm hành động tài chính chống nạn rửa tiền* NOWC (New Open World Corporation) : tổ chức bầu chọn kỳ quan thế giới mới* WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) : tổ chức sở hữu trí tuệ thế giới* IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) : cơ quan năng lượng nguyên tử quốc tế* IDLO (International Development Law Organization) : tổ chức phát triển luật quốc tế
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VIET TAT CAC TO CHUC QT

VIET TAT CAC TO CHUC QT

TRANG 1 WMO Tổ chức khí tượng thế giới World Meteorological Organization WIPO Tổ chức quốc tế về quyền sở hữu trí tuê ̣ World Intellectual Property Organization WCCHô ̣i[r]

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Tài liệu INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SITE LICENSE AND SUPPORT AGREEMENT ppt

TÀI LIỆU INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SITE LICENSE AND SUPPORT AGREEMENT PPT

ORACLE ADDENDUM This Oracle Addendum (“Addendum”) includes the terms set out below. The terms of this Addendum apply to the Licensee’s license of Oracle Corporation products (“Oracle Programs”) under the Agreement. All terms and conditions of the Agreement that are not expressly modified, supplemented, or deleted herein shall remain in force, and shall apply to all matters contained herein. Any defined terms in the Agreement shall have the same meanings when used herein, unless expressly modified herein. With respect only to the matters expressly covered by this Addendum, the terms and conditions of the Addendum shall supersede any contradictory terms or conditions in the Agreement. ORACLE CORPORATION (“ORACLE”) IS EXPRESSLY DESIGNATED AS A THIRD PARTY BENEFICIARY OF THIS ADDENDUM. 1. General. The following terms and conditions apply: (A) The Oracle Programs may only be used within the scope of the application package and for Licensee’s internal business operations, including with third-party reporting tools, and for no other purpose; (B) Licensee is strictly prohibited from (a) assigning, giving, or transferring the Oracle Programs and/or any related services, or any interest in them, to another individual or entity (provided, Licensee may grant a security interest in the Oracle Programs and/or services but only if the secured party has no right to use or transfer the Oracle Programs and/or any services); (b) timesharing, subscription service, or rental use of the Oracle Programs; and (c) passing or attempting to pass title to the Oracle programs either to itself or to any other party; (C) Licensee is strictly prohibited from reverse engineering (unless required by law for interoperability), disassembly or decompilation of the Oracle Programs, and is strictly prohibited from duplicating the Oracle Programs except for a sufficient number of copies of each program for the Licensee’s licensed use and one copy of each program media. Licensee shall retain all notices, including copyright and trademark notices, on the Oracle Programs and any copies of the Oracle Programs. Except as expressly permitted in this Addendum, Licensee shall not modify the Oracle Programs;
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Report to Congress January 2012: International Patent Protections For Small Businesses pot

REPORT TO CONGRESS JANUARY 2012: INTERNATIONAL PATENT PROTECTIONS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES POT

43 See USPTO Hearing, at 24–26, available at http://www.uspto.gov/aia_implementation/111027-ipsb_transcript.pdf. 16 Soon after, at an industry conference in Germany, the owner discovered that a German firm was demonstrating scanner products that used the very same core technology that he had pioneered. The German company was well-funded and successful, and was quite candid that it had derived its products from the American inventor and his small business. Yet the German firm highlighted its considerable corporate backing and network of clients and existing service agreements, and carried away a great deal of business as a result. The American inventor consulted his intellectual property counsel regarding the situation in Germany, but learned that he was bound by his earlier economic decision to abdicate patent protection in most foreign countries. Unless the German firm imported its scanners into the U.S., disputing the expropriation was, ironically, not worth the option. Later, testifying before Congress on this issue, the American small business owner lamented that his intention had never been to drive the German firm out of the market. To the contrary, he would have preferred to do business with them: grant them a license and mutually enjoy the benefit of their resources and distribution networks. Only his early and difficult economic choice left him with no bargaining position. He had unwittingly made a royalty-free donation to an overseas competitor only too grateful to capture the market and the jobs, without taking the risk or expending resources on research and development. 6. International patenting costs are often substantial. In comparison to the United States, patenting in other international markets tends to be expensive. It may be impossible to compare the entirety of economic costs and benefits of patenting in one nation versus another due to differences in patent scope, patent laws, and patent enforcement. Nevertheless, it is possible at least to compare the levels of patent-office fees faced by a typical small entity seeking patent protection in different countries. Significantly, the U.S. recognizes applicants who qualify for “small entity” status and provides a
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Tài liệu Make Millions and Make Change 8 pdf

TÀI LIỆU MAKE MILLIONS AND MAKE CHANGE 8 PDF

Best Practices as Weapons 71 You are simultaneously protected with your base reality (of excellent plans, products, employees, intellectual property, financing, and so forth) and can therefore safely project your hyped up confidence in the market, which is likely to appeal to new customers and help uncover a variety of potential opportunities that you are qualified to leverage. Again, you are creating a self-fulfilling prophecy by projecting your real world confidence.  Here is our attempt at an equation to explain Hype Theory: Life + Art = Nature + Nurture = Chicken + Egg = Cash + Stock = Reality + Hype They all feed off their mate and are intrinsic to the other to create success. They engage in codependent, mutual self-preservation. One stabilizing force allows another force to radically explore options and adopt the best of them, without destroying the sanctity or functionality of the base business. To the extent that you hype and simultaneously believe in your own services, others will follow, which will advance your business just as the other parts of Hype Theory work together to guarantee successful evolution. Gain Consensus The more trusted professionals who tell you that an idea or plan is sound, the more likely it is to be true. While you should not make decisions based on “groupthink,” or averages, or “management byMake Millions and Make Change!
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Advertising for Results Intellectual property By G.F. Brown ppt

ADVERTISING FOR RESULTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY BY G.F. BROWN PPT

TRANG 16 Still, you should not say, “I never understand what they’re talking about around here!” That’s inviting trouble, because you’re really saying, “I’m ignorant and I think it’s fun[r]

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Encyclopedia of Global Resources part 130 docx

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GLOBAL RESOURCES PART 130 DOCX

four dissenting justices strongly disagreed that takingprivate property for private economic developmentcomported with the meaning of the “public use” com-ponent of the takingsclause,anewterm in the takingslexicon was born—“economic development taking.”Impact on Resource UseThe changes in takings law and eminent domain inthe United States have a global impact. The decisionsin the Dolan and Lucas cases have direct ramificationsfor natural resource conservation and management,because many land-use restrictions are intended topromote improved environmental quality. At a timewhen environmental protection and conservationhave become significant global issues, governing bod-ies in the United States face the dilemma of decidingwhether to protect natural resources through strictregulations or forgo such restrictions to avoid costlylitigation that does not necessarily have a predictableoutcome.Moreover, takings law and eminent domain con-tinue to become more complex for those involved inmaking land-use planning decisions, as evidenced bythe Kelo decision. The Kelo decision did not result inthe city’s planned urban revitalization, as the privatedeveloper was not financially able to go forward withthe development. In response to the Kelo decision,President George W. Bush issued an executive orderin 2006 applicable to the federal government, andCongress proposed legislation applicable to states, us-ing federal funds that limited the use of eminent do-
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Tài liệu Intellectual Property Explained pdf

TÀI LIỆU INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY EXPLAINED PDF

design which has already been made available to the public. It should pass the ‘deja vu’ test; andDesignsDesign means physical appearance; this right is not concerned with the function or operation of the product.15www.ipo.gov.uk/design.htm► individual in character – which means that the overall impression the design gives the informed user must be different from any previous designs. In assessing individual character, it is important to consider the degree of freedom the designer had in crafting the appearance of the design.Also it is worth remembering that you can’t register your design if:► it’s more than 12 months since the design was rst publicly disclosed (there is a risk that your design could be invalidated otherwise);► the design is dictated only by how the product works;► the design includes parts of complicated products that cannot be seen in normal use (for example, vehicle engine spare parts or the parts inside a computer);► it is offensive; or► it involves certain national emblems and protected ags.As with other intellectual property rights, owning a registered design means you can sell, or licence someone else to use it.
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Sneak Preview Branding 123 and Product Launch 123 potx

SNEAK PREVIEW BRANDING 123 AND PRODUCT LAUNCH 123 POTX

“old” Coke, re-naming it “Coca-Cola Classic.” The New Coke product was eventually abandoned.SegwayIn 2002, Dean Kamen, a renowned inventor who holds over 440 U.S. and foreign patents, introduced a two-wheel electric vehicle to the transportation marketplace called the Segway. There was tremendous buzz about the product even before its release, and some $100 million was invested in developing the product. When the Segway came to market, however, the public was underwhelmed. Perhaps the Segway was ahead of its time, or maybe the product couldn’t live up to its hype, but the interest paled in comparison to the sales projections. The Segway was odd looking, it had technical problems, and it was expensive, averaging around $5,000 each, depending on the model. Touted as a vehicle that would revolutionize travel, the Segway flopped, selling less than 30,000 units in six years. It still exists, but is sold only for specialized usage. TIME magazine named the Segway one of “the ten biggest tech failures of the last decade.”Sony BetamaxIn the 1970s, the Japanese company Sony introduced a video recording system it called Betamax. While it featured great sound and picture quality for a home recording system, Sony decided to do something that turned out to be a fatal mistake. Because Sony thought they had invented something that was unique in the marketplace, the company made Betamax technology proprietary. Sometimes keeping a technology proprietary is a good idea, but in this case, Sony misread the market for video recorders. Competitors, mostly other Japanese companies, came out with products that all standardized around a technology called VHS. Soon, every company was making VHS recorders and players, while Sony was the only manufacturer making the Betamax system. By 1988, Sony had to admit its failure and introduce its own line of VHS equipment, but by that time, it was too late: other companies had already dominated the VHS market.An Important Word About Protecting Your Intellectual PropertyAlthough it is not the subject of this eGuide, your idea, product or service is valuable intellectual property and it should be protected. Protecting your intellectual property is essential so someone else doesn’t steal your product idea. This does not mean that
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Tài liệu MEDIA, TECHNOLOGY, AND INFORMATION LAW doc

TÀI LIỆU MEDIA, TECHNOLOGY, AND INFORMATION LAW DOC

a year-long practicum at the Information Society Project at Yale Law School that trains law students in the art of visual advocacy — making effective arguments through film.•Innovation.Theprojectexplorestheintersection between law and film through multidisciplinary workshops, discussions with renowned guest speakers, and hands-on production.•Advocacy.Theprojectproducesintellectu-ally stimulating and well-researched films grounded in the stories of people who live out the consequences of the law.•Community.Theprojectispartofarisingcommunity of students, lawyers, and filmmakers invested in visual advocacy.CoursesThe Law School curriculum includes a number of courses related to law and media. In addition, lawstudentsmaytakecoursesatYaleCollege,often for credit toward their degree. While not all coursesaretaughteachsemester,someexamplesinclude: AccesstoKnowledgePracticumCommunicationsLawCyberlawFirstAmendmentIntroduction to Intellectual Property Information Privacy LawInternet Privacy
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Gale Encyclopedia Of American Law 3Rd Edition Volume 1 P2 docx

GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN LAW 3RD EDITION VOLUME 1 P2 DOCX

also called inductive reasoning.A PRIORI[Latin, From the cause to the effect.] This phraserefers to a type of reasoning that examines givengeneral principles to discover what particular factsor real-life observations can be derived from them.Another name for this method is deductivereasoning.AB INITIO[Latin, From the beginning; from the first act;from the inception.] An agreement is said to be“void ab initio” if it has at no time had any legalvalidity. A party may be said to be a trespasser, anestate said to be good, an agreement or deed saidto be void, or a marriage or act said to beunlawful, ab initio. Contrasted in this sense withex post facto, or with postea.The illegality of the conduct or the revela-tion of the real facts makes the entire situationillegal ab initio (from the beginning), not justfrom the time the wrongful behavior oc curs. Aperson who enters property under the authorityof law but who then by misconduct abuses hisor her right to be on the property is considereda trespasser ab initio. If a sheriff enters propertyunder the authority of a court order requiringhim to seize a valuable painting, but instead hetakes an expensive marble sculpture, he wouldbe a trespasser from the beginning. Because theofficer abused his authority, a court would
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ROLE OF IPR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER - CORPORATE VIEWS

ROLE OF IPR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER - CORPORATE VIEWS

ROLE OF IPR IN BIOTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER - CORPORATE VIEWSW. LesserCornell University1The enhancement of intellectual property rights (IPR) under the TRIPs agreement2 has tosome degree been paralleled by an expansion of the literature on the optimal forms androles of IPR systems. Economists have long concerned themselves (albeit with limitedsuccess) with such matters as optimal patent scope and duration. Public sector scientistshave been particularly concerned with the effects of IPR on the dissemination of researchfindings, while a broad range of groups has expressed divergent opinions about theimplications of IPR for the environment and traditional cultures, among other subjects.And industry representative groups like the U.S. Chamber of Commerce have in the pastpressed hard for strengthened protection worldwide.What is missing from this knowledge base is much of a concept of the perspective of howactual users of IP systems view its components and roles. We are aware, largely fromsurveys in developed countries, that the importance of IPR are seen quite differently indifferent sectors. Nogues (1990, pp. 11-14), for example, found executives on averageranked patent rights low as a component of R&D investment determinants. The reasonsare generally conjectured as the ease of copying, the option to use alternative protectionforms (secrecy, rapid technological progress, etc.), and differences in value and R&Dcosts. Grubb (1999, p. 377) gives some insights into the electronics sector where patentsare used as ‘bargaining chips’ in patent-pooling and cross-licensing agreements. This heattributes to the common industry standard imposed by necessity and regulation. “Insuch a situation there is no room for individual monopolies to different technologies, norfor the use of patents to block the competition. [I]f they were used in this way, it wouldbe impossible to develop and market any products at all.” And research-based boutiquecompanies use patents as a means of capitalizing research value at the pre-commercialization stage.Yet even this limited information applies largely to developed countries. About views of
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