THE 30 MOST PREVALENT CHRONIC PAINFUL DISEASES DISORDERS AND DYSFUNCTIONS THAT OCCUR IN THE OROFACIAL REGION

Tìm thấy 10,000 tài liệu liên quan tới từ khóa "THE 30 MOST PREVALENT CHRONIC PAINFUL DISEASES DISORDERS AND DYSFUNCTIONS THAT OCCUR IN THE OROFACIAL REGION":

Rối loạn về xương đòn doc

RỐI LOẠN VỀ XƯƠNG ĐÒN DOC

volvement of the extremities, spine,and pelvis; and a prolonged clinicalcourse with exacerbation and remis-sion. All three conditions may in-volve the clavicle. These syndromesdiffer somewhat by age of presenta-tion and sites of major involvement.CRMO is generally diagnosed inchildhood and often involves thelong bones. SAPHO typically pre-sents in adults, has a high incidenceof pustular involvement of the palmsand soles, and often involves thespine. SCCH involves the anteriorchest wall in adults, with less in-volvement of the spine and pelvis.Until there are criteria that clearlyseparate these three conditions onthe basis of etiology, clinical course,or treatment, it is appropriate to de-Figure 9A, Anteroposterior radiograph of a patient with hypertrophic osteitis. The medial one third of the clavicle is enlarged withincreased density. B, Axial computed tomography scan of the clavicle shown in panel A demonstrating increased bone densityof the medial clavicle with periosteal thickening. C, Medial third clavicle shown in panel A after removal for intractable paindemonstrating dense cancellous bone.Rodney K. Beals, MD, and Donald D. Sauser, MDVolume 14, Number 4, April 2006 209scribe them under the common termchronic multifocal periosteitis andarthropathy. A further source of diag-
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INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS AND BOOM-BUST CYCLES IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION +

INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS AND BOOM BUST CYCLES IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION

Comparing output volatility in the two periods, the results are mixed. Five countries show significant increases (Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Japan), one country shows a significant decrease (the Philippines), and the remaining countries do not experience significant changes over time. Except for the Philippines, the five Asian crisis countries show higher volatility of output in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. This result is consistent even when the crisis period is excluded. On the other hand, greater China (China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and Singapore do not experience a rise in output volatility in the 1990s, as well as Australia and New Zealand. According to the consumption smoothing property in the inter-temporal current account model, consumption should be less volatile than output (Obstfeld and Rogoff, 1996). Countries, when facing positive shocks, lend to foreign countries in order to smooth the consumption stream over time, and vice versa. However, in the table, we observe that this is not the case in many countries.9 The table shows that consumption volatility is significantly less than output volatility in only five countries including more developed countries (Japan, Australia, and New Zealand) in the region. Developed countries can smooth their consumption by using various risk-sharing instruments. As financial markets develop, developing countries should be able to gain access to these risk-sharing instruments and reduce the volatility of their consumption stream. There is no significant change over time in consumption volatility and no explicit pattern is detected in the table. Investment is three to four times more volatile than output in the table, which is the typical result in other empirical and simulation studies (Baxter and Crucini 1995; Kim, Kose and Plummer 2001). Investment volatility in China, Singapore and Japan is among the lowest with a relative standard deviation of less than or around three, while investment in the five Asian crisis 9 We should note that the volatility of consumption changes depending on the specific consumption data. It is known that the volatility of durable goods consumption is two to four times higher than that of nondurables consumption (see Backus, Kehoe and Kydland, 1995).
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Chapter 104. Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Part 4) pps

CHAPTER 104 ACUTE AND CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA PART 4

Chapter 104. Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Part 4) Clinical Presentation Symptoms Patients with AML most often present with nonspecific symptoms that begin gradually or abruptly and are the consequence of anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia or leukocyte dysfunction, or thrombocytopenia. Nearly half have had symptoms for ≤3 months before the leukemia was diagnosed. Half mention fatigue as the first symptom, but most complain of fatigue or weakness at the time of diagnosis. Anorexia and weight loss are common. Fever with or without an identifiable infection is the initial symptom in ~10% of patients. Signs of abnormal hemostasis (bleeding, easy bruising) are noted first in 5% of patients. On occasion, bone pain, lymphadenopathy, nonspecific cough, headache, or diaphoresis is the presenting symptom. Rarely patients may present with symptoms from a mass lesion located in the soft tissues, breast, uterus, ovary, cranial or spinal dura, gastrointestinal tract, lung, mediastinum, prostate, bone, or other organs. The mass lesion represents a tumor of leukemic cells and is called a granulocytic sarcoma, or chloroma. Typical AML may occur simultaneously, later, or not at all in these patients. This rare presentation is more common in patients with t(8;21). Physical Findings Fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy, sternal tenderness, and evidence of infection and hemorrhage are often found at diagnosis. Significant gastrointestinal bleeding, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, or intracranial hemorrhage occur most often in APL. Bleeding associated with coagulopathy may also occur in monocytic AML and with extreme degrees of leukocytosis or thrombocytopenia in other morphologic subtypes. Retinal hemorrhages are detected in 15% of patients. Infiltration of the gingivae, skin, soft tissues, or the meninges with leukemic blasts at diagnosis is characteristic of the monocytic subtypes and those
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Polymorphisms in endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase genes are associated with cervical cancer risk in a Chinese Han population

Polymorphisms in endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase genes are associated with cervical cancer risk in a Chinese Han population

Antigen-processing machinery molecules play crucial roles in infectious diseases and cancers. Studies have shown that polymorphisms in endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) genes can influence the enzymatic activity of ERAP proteins and are associated with the risk of diseases.

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Chapter 105. Malignancies of Lymphoid Cells (Part 1) docx

CHAPTER 105. MALIGNANCIES OF LYMPHOID CELLS (PART 1) DOCX

lymphoid or myeloid origin based on morphologic characteristics. However, a spectrum of diseases that were formerly all called chronic lymphoid leukemia has become apparent (Table 105-1). The acute leukemias were usually malignancies of blast cells with few identifying characteristics. When cytochemical stains became available, it was possible to divide these objectively into myeloid malignancies and acute leukemias of lymphoid cells. Acute leukemias of lymphoid cells have been subdivided based on morphologic characteristics by the French-American-British (FAB) group (Table 105-2). Using this system, lymphoid malignancies of small uniform blasts (e.g., typical childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) were called L1, lymphoid malignancies with larger and more variable size cells were called L2, and lymphoid malignancies of uniform cells with basophilic and sometimes vacuolated cytoplasm were called L3 (e.g., typical Burkitt's lymphoma cells). Acute leukemias of lymphoid cells have also been subdivided based on immunologic (i.e., T cell vs. B cell) and cytogenetic abnormalities (Table 105-2). Major cytogenetic subgroups include the t(9;22) (e.g., Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and the t(8;14) found in the L3 or Burkitt's leukemia. Table 105-1 Lymphoid Disorders that Can Present as "Chronic Leukemia" and Be Confused with Typical B Cell Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia Follicular lymphoma Splenic marginal zone lymphoma
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Characteristics of concomitant cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Characteristics of concomitant cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Objectives: To examine the characteristics of concomitant cardiovascular diseases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 162 patients who had a confirmed diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from January 2016 to October 2018.

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Báo cáo khoa học: Prions and prion diseases docx

BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC: PRIONS AND PRION DISEASES DOCX

pathogenesis of perorally acquired TSEs. MichaelBeekes and Patricia McBride summarize the currentknowledge on the spread of scrapie, CWD, BSE andvCJD through the body in naturally affected hosts andin animals experimentally challenged via the aliment-ary tract. Although this knowledge has substantiallyexpanded during the past few years, the molecularmechanisms of the spread of prions in the nervous sys-tem remain elusive. A better understanding of thesemechanisms may help to identify approaches for inhib-iting the propagation of infection in the CNS whereprions confer the neuopathological damage that even-tually leads to clinical disease.Apart from the deposition of PrPTSE, features ofCNS neuropathology in scrapie and other TSEs ofteninclude vacuolar (or ‘spongiform’) change, glial activa-tion, synaptic degeneration and loss of neurons. Theexact molecular pathways and mechanisms throughwhich pathological prion protein or its misfoldingintermediates are involved in the production of neuro-pathological changes, and eventually fatal cerebrospi-nal dysfunction, are as yet unknown. Jo¨rg Tatzelt andHermann Scha¨tzl discuss selected aspects of themolecular basis of cerebral neurodegeneration in prion
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FINANCIAL AUDIT SERVICES CITY OF SANTA ROSA_part2 pot

FINANCIAL AUDIT SERVICES CITY OF SANTA ROSA_PART2 POT

the Political Reform Act and the City’s Conflict of Interest Code, which generally prohibit individuals from making or participating in the making of decisions that will have a material financial effect on their economic interests. The term “consultant” generally includes individuals who make governmental decisions or who serve in a staff capacity. In the event that the City determines, in its discretion, that Consultant is a “consultant” under the Political Reform Act, Consultant shall cause the following to occur within 30 days after execution of this Agreement: (1) Identify the individuals who will provide services or perform work under this Agreement as “consultants,” and (2) Cause these individuals to file with the City’s Representative the “assuming office” statements of economic interests required by the City’s Conflict of Interest Code. Thereafter, throughout the term of the Agreement, Consultant shall cause these individuals to file with the City Representative annual statements of economic interests, and “leaving office” statements of economic interests, as required by the City’s Conflict of Interest Code. The above statements of economic interests are public records subject to public disclosure under the California Public Records Act. The City may withhold all or a portion of any payment due under this Agreement until all required statements are filed. f. Waiver of Rights. Neither City acceptance of, or payment for, any service or performed by Consultant, nor any waiver by either party of any default, breach or condition precedent, shall be construed as a waiver of any provision of this Agreement, nor as a waiver of any other default, breach or condition precedent or any other right hereunder. g. Ownership and Use of Property Rights. Unless otherwise expressly provide herein, all original works created by Consultant for City hereunder shall be and remain the property of City. Consultant agrees that any patentable or copyrightable property rights, to the extent created for City as part of the services provided hereunder, shall be in the public domain and may be used by anyone for any lawful purpose. h. Incorporation of attachments and exhibits. The attachments and exhibits
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Six minute walking distance in healthy elderly subjects ppt

SIX MINUTE WALKING DISTANCE IN HEALTHY ELDERLY SUBJECTS

agement should be given regularly, i.e. every 30 s, andstandardized. Since the 6MWD test only gives an esti-mate of the patient's functional capacity, it cannot replacean incremental maximal exercise test. The latter gives theinvestigator more direct information on exercise physiol-ogy and points more directly towards the causes of theexercise limitation [19].It is concluded that performance on the six minute walktest is variable in healthy persons over the age of 50 yrs.Variability, however, can be explained by using height,weight, age and sex. Although there is evidence for theaccuracy of the presented regression equation, it should beconfirmed in larger populations.References1. Guyatt GH, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ, Fallen EL,Pugsley SO, Taylor DW. The six-minute walk: a newmeasure of exercise capacity in patients with chronicheart failure. Can Med Assoc J 1995; 132: 919±923.2. McGavin CR, Gupta SP, McHardy GJR. Twelve-minutewalking test for assessing disability in chronic bronchitis.BMJ 1976; 1: 822±823.3. Butland RJA, Pang J, Gross ER, Woodcock AA, GeddesDM. Two-, six- and 12-minute walking test in respiratorydisease. BMJ 1982; 284: 1607±1608.4. Guyatt GH, Pugsley SO, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ,Berman L, Jones NJ. Effect of encouragement on walkingtest performance. Thorax 1984; 39: 818±822.5. Redelmeier DA, Bayoumi AM, Goldstein R, Guyatt G.Interpreting small differences in functional status: the sixminute walk test in chronic lung disease patients. Am J
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THE DRIVERS OF AGING IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA

THE DRIVERS OF AGING IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA

This chapter reviews the effects of fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration patterns on aging in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. Population aging is attributable primarily to declines in fertility rather than to improvements in life expectancy, which have lagged behind what most other regions have achieved. The region is moving toward a more balanced age structure, which will imply increases in the ratio of older dependents to the workingage population (that is, the oldage dependency ratio1) going forward. Outward migration flows have also contributed to aging in the region, and immigration is unlikely to make a significant contribution to maintaining the size of workingage populations.
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NOVEL INSIGHTS ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AND POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE pot

NOVEL INSIGHTS ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY AND POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE POT

radiolucent band corresponding to the “valve” is not always seen, because the obstructing membrane can become distended and take on a more sail-like or windsock appearance, as shown in Figure 4. Secondary VUR is found in 25-50% of PUV cases (Agarwal, 1999). In a subset of patients, unilateral VUR may provide a “pop-off” effect, whereby renal tissue and function on the non-refluxing side is preserved at the expense of severe dysplasia and dysfunction in the refluxing kidney (Greenfield et al., 1983). 3.2.2 Urethral atresia, stenosis, or hypoplasia Although PUV is the most common cause of congenital lower urinary tract obstruction postnatally, detailed postmortem analysis of fetuses with megacystis and hyperechogenic kidneys showed that isolated severe lower urinary tract obstruction before 25 weeks’ gestation was as likely to be due to urethral atresia or stenosis as PUV (Robyr et al., 2005). Urethral atresia may arise in association with complex collections of other genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Moreover, urethral atresia may be a cause of bladder outlet obstruction in females whereas PUV is not. Urethral atresia is incompatible with life unless an alternative connection between the bladder and the amniotic sac is present. Prenatal surgical decompression has been performed to relieve this obstruction, although a spontaneous fistula or patent urachus may also provide the necessary bladder drainage Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Clinical Perspectives and Animal Models 9 Fig. 4. Radiological findings associated with PUV in a 2 day old male. A - C. Ultrasound of urinary bladder (A), right (B) and left (C) kidneys. The bladder (BL) is rounded with a thickened and trabeculated wall. This patient had severe hydroureter bilaterally, although only the left ureter (LU) is clearly observed in image A. Moderate to severe hydronephrosis is present bilaterally, with thinning of the cortex, increased echogenicity relative to the liver (LIV), and poor corticomedullary differentiation. One fluid-filled area (CY) in the right kidney did not clearly communicate with the collecting system, and likely represents a large cyst. D and E. VCUG. The lobulated and undulating contours of the urinary bladder (BL)
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Chapter 016. Back and Neck Pain (Part 10) pdf

CHAPTER 016 BACK AND NECK PAIN PART 10

Other Causes of Back Pain Postural Back Pain There is a group of patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) in whom no anatomic lesion can be found despite exhaustive investigation. These individuals complain of vague, diffuse back pain with prolonged sitting or standing that is relieved by rest. The physical examination is unrevealing except for "poor posture." Imaging studies and laboratory evaluations do not identify a specific cause. Exercises to strengthen the paraspinal and abdominal muscles are sometimes helpful.

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Tài liệu Báo cáo khoa học: Modulation of a-synuclein aggregation by dopamine in the presence of MPTP and its metabolite pptx

TÀI LIỆU BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC: MODULATION OF A-SYNUCLEIN AGGREGATION BY DOPAMINE IN THE PRESENCE OF MPTP AND ITS METABOLITE PPTX

diseases. Drug Discov Today 15, 985–990.9 Di Monte DA, Lavasani M & Manning-Bog AB (2002)Environmental factors in Parkinson’s disease. Neurotox-icology 23, 487–502.10 Forno LS, Langston JW, DeLanney LE, Irwin I &Ricaurte GA (1986) Locus ceruleus lesions and eosino-philic inclusions in MPTP-treated monkeys. Ann Neurol20, 449–455.11 Kowall NW, Hantraye P, Brouillet E, Beal MF, McKeeAC & Ferrante RJ (2000) MPTP induces alpha-synuc-lein aggregation in the substantia nigra of baboons.Neuroreport 11, 211–213.12 Schulz JB (2007) Mechanisms of neurodegeneration inidiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism RelatDisord Suppl 3, S306–S308.13 Choi W-S, Kruse SE, Palmiter RD & Xia Z (2008)Mitochondrial complex I inhibition is not required fordopaminergic neuron death induced by rotenone,MPP+, or paraquat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105,15136–15141.14 Leong SL, Cappai R, Barnham KJ & Pham CL (2009)Modulation of alpha-synuclein aggregation bydopamine: a review. Neurochem Res 34, 1836–1846.15 Clayton DF & George JM (1999) Synucleins in synapticplasticity and neurodegenerative disorders. J NeurosciRes 58, 120–129.16 Paxinou E, Chen Q, Weisse M, Giasson BI, Norris EH,Rueter SM, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM & Ischiropoulos
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Education Preparing For The Project Management Professional_11 ppt

EDUCATION PREPARING FOR THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL_11 PPT

d. The project manager should assign a member of the project team to monitor the activity of the supplier to make sure that the supplier deals with the risk properly if it occurs. 2. A project manager is faced with making a decision about a risk that the team has identified. The risk involves the design of a bicycle. It has been found that the neck of the bicycle, where the steering bearing is located and the two supporting bars of the frame come together, will corrode in a high salt environment. If this takes place the neck may fail and injure the rider. The project team decides that the design of the bicycle should be modified by using corrosion resistant materials in the design of the neck. This will eliminate the risk from consideration. This tech-nique is called: a. Risk avoidance. b. Risk acceptance. c. Risk rejection. d. Risk deflection. 3. A problem occurs in the design of a grocery cart. In this case it is determined that the wheel will wear out much quicker in areas of heavy snow and ice because the salt will corrode the wheel bearings. Using sealed bearing wheels will significantly increase cost, and it is deter-276 9618$$ CH15 09-06-02 15:00:32 PS277 Risk Management mined that the carts themselves will be rusty and damaged at about the same time the wheel bearings begin to fail. By injecting the wheel bear-ings with a high temperature grease the life of the wheel bearings is increased considerably. The project recommends using the high temper-ature grease. This is called: a. Risk acceptance. b. Risk avoidance.
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Tài liệu Project Management Professional-Chapter 15a (Question) docx

TÀI LIỆU PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL-CHAPTER 15A (QUESTION) DOCX

that other projects of this type have historically had a certain amount ofrisk discussed in the lessons learned of the project. This project teamshould set aside money to handle these risks in which financial category? 9618$$ CH15 09-06-02 15:00:32 PS278 Preparing for the Project Management Professional Certification Exama. Risk management fundb. Contingency budgetc. Management reserved. Emergency fund7. A project manager observes that in one part of the project several activi-ties are being completed late. All of these activities have several days offree float associated with them. These are early warnings of the risk thatthe project will be late in completion. They are called:a. Risk triggers.b. Warning messages.c. Risk forecasts.d. Schedule risks.8. The effect of risk on schedule dates for the project creates an array ofdates that are possible for project completion. In a typical project themost likely date for the project will have which of the following relation-ships with the expected value for the project completion date?a. The most likely date will be earlier than the expected value date.b. The most likely date will be later than the expected value date.c. Both dates will have the same likelihood.d. The most likely date and the expected value date will occur at thesame time.9. A project manager is reviewing the risks of her project. One of the risksshe is reviewing has an impact of $25,000 and an associated probabilityof 10%. The risk is associated with an activity that is the predecessor toseven other activities in the schedule. All eight activities are on the criti-
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Health and Quality of Life Outcomes BioMed Central Editorial Open Access Chronic fatigue and doc

HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE OUTCOMES BIOMED CENTRAL EDITORIAL OPEN ACCESS CHRONIC FATIGUE AND DOC

Another remarkable finding is that of the 256 personswith CFS-like characteristics who agreed to be clinicallyevaluated, only 43 (17%) fulfilled the criteria for CFS.This is a very low percentage. It is not commented by theauthors. If the interpretation of misclassification of CFS inthis study is less likely then it could be that CFS-like char-acteristics by self-report do not predict the clinical diagno-sis of CFS. If this is true then the conclusion is inevitablethat it is impossible to make estimations of CFS preva-lence in epidemiological studies only 1 of CFS. Thiswould mean that valid epidemiological studies of CFS inthe general population without clinical evaluation of thesubjects are impossible. Anyway there is a need for an epi-demiological CFS case-finding definition that corre-sponds better with the clinical diagnosis of CFS.Diagnosed CFS cases in the general populationOne of the advantages of studies in the general populationis that there can be no referral bias. In the study of Solo-mon et al [1] only 7 of the above mentioned 43 subjects(16%) who fulfilled the criteria of CFS after clinical eval-uation, were ever diagnosed as CFS in the past by a practi-tioner. This is a very small number, asking for anexplanation.There are at least two possible explanations.1) Most subjects with CFS in the general population donot seek help for their symptoms and are therefore neverdiagnosed as such. These data are not available in thisstudy, so we also do not know why these subjects don'tseek help. It may be the same situation as in IBS patients.Many subjects in the general population have IBS symp-
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Chapter 099. Disorders of Hemoglobin (Part 13) ppsx

CHAPTER 099. DISORDERS OF HEMOGLOBIN (PART 13) PPSX

Chapter 099. Disorders of Hemoglobin (Part 13) Hemoglobin E HbE (i.e., α2β226Glu -> Lys) is extremely common in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The gene has become far more prevalent in the United States as a result of immigration of Asian persons, especially in California, where HbE is the most common variant detected. HbE is mildly unstable but not enough to affect RBC life span significantly. The high frequency of the HbE gene may be a result of the thalassemia phenotype associated with its inheritance. Heterozygotes resemble individuals with mild β-thalassemia trait. Homozygotes have somewhat more marked abnormalities but are asymptomatic. Compound heterozygotes for HbE and a β-thalassemia gene can have β-thalassemia intermedia or β-thalassemia major, depending on the severity of the coinherited thalassemic gene. The βE allele contains a single base change in codon 26 that causes the amino acid substitution. However, this mutation activates a cryptic RNA splice site generating a structurally abnormal globin mRNA that cannot be translated from about 50% of the initial pre-mRNA molecules. The remaining 40–50% are normally spliced and generate functional mRNA that is translated into βE-globin because the mature mRNA carries the base change that alters codon 26. Genetic counseling of the persons at risk for HbE should focus on the
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Semiconductor Technologies Part 10 potx

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGIES PART 10 POTX

transitions. Energy of interband transitions is always decreased if the exchange contributionis taking into account. Energy of intersubband transitions can be shifted in any directionsdepending on subbands populations.Hartree-Fock approximation includes the Rabi frequency renormalization represented in thepolarization equation (44). Joint action of the exchange contribution and Rabi frequency renor-malization on the spectrum are marked by the blue line in Fig. 11. As follows from results,Rabi frequency renormalization (also known as depolarization) leads to the occurrence of anarrow peak in the absorption spectrum. The frequency corresponding to this peak is thefrequency of optically excited coherent collective oscillations in the electron plasma. Suchplasma colective oscillations are called the intersubband plasmons [Mi (2005)]. Theory of cou-pled photon and intersubband plasmon was developed in [Pereira (2007)], and this theorygives rise of new quasiparticle titled antipolariton.3.5 Electron transport effectThe effects of the coherent transport can be observed in pump-probe experiments at the fem-tosecond and picosecond time intervals. The pump-probe experiment consists in propagationthrough the investigated media of two optical pulses shifted in time relative each other. Firstpump pulse is characterized by high intensity, and it excites optically-active media. The sec-ond pulse reads changes in the media undergoing optical absorption or gain. More detailsabout pump-probe techniques can be found in [Weber et al (2009)]. Fig. 12 contains results ofpump-probe optical experiments reported in [Weber et al (2009)]. The pump pulse have theshape of the Gaussian function.Each subfigure corresponds to defined parameters which are the temperature and width of theinjection barrier in the QCS. Oscillations of the optical response signal at low temperature andbarrier’s width is caused by coherent electron transport between active region and injectorthrough the injection barrier. The decay of oscillations with increasing of temperature is effectof many-body interactions. Scatterings leads to destroying of the coherence via dephasing.Represented data also reflects the effect of injection barrier width on electron transport. Ashave been mentioned above, the coherent electron transport is strongly dependent on theinteraction between quantum wells defined by parameters of the potential barrier. As far asthe width of barrier is increased, the interaction between quantum wells is decreased and,
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Báo cáo khoa học: Interaction analysis of the heterotrimer formed by the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit, a4 and the mammalian ortholog of yeast Tip41 (TIPRL) ppt

BÁO CÁO KHOA HỌC INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF THE HETEROTRIMER FORMED BY THE PHOSPHATASE 2A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT A4 AND THE MAMMALIAN ORTHOLOG OF YEAST TIP41 TIPRL PPT

were used to test their interaction with His–TIPRLusing recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichiacoli. In this experiment, His–TIPRL was pulled downby all GST–phosphatase fusion proteins tested, butnot by GST alone (Fig. 2A). Residues 210–309 corre-sponding to the C-terminal region of PP2Aca andPP2Acb were sufficient for this interaction (Fig. 2A).The interaction between recombinant PP2Aca andendogenous TIPRL from HEK293 was tested in aGST pull-down assay using glutathione–Sepharose-immobilized GST–PP2Aca or GST and a HEK293 cellextract. TIPRL was able to bind to GST–PP2Aca, butnot to GST alone, which further confirms the specific-ity of this interaction (Fig. 2B).Analysis of TIPRL protein expression by immunoblotanalysis identified similar levels in the immortalized cellBAFig. 1. TIPRL interaction with catalytic subunits of type 2A phosphatases in the yeast two-hybrid system. (A) Schematic representation ofthe cDNAs encoding catalytic subunits of type 2A phosphatases isolated in the yeast two-hybrid screen using the TIPRL as bait. PP2Ac isrepresented by a black bar for comparison. Numbers on the left of the gray bars indicate the first amino acid in the respective activationdomain-phosphatase catalytic subunit fusion. The PP2Ac isoforms a and b share identical amino acid sequences in the C-terminal regioncomprising residues 210–309. (B) Two-hybrid assay for expression of the HIS3 reporter gene. Strain L40 carrying the yeast two-hybrid vec-tors encoding the indicated DNA-binding domain (DB) and activation domain (AD) fusions were plated on synthetic minimal medium lackingtryptophan and leucine (left, SD-WL) and, on minimal medium supplemented with 10 mM 3-AT lacking tryptophan, leucine and histidine(right, SD-WLH +10 mM 3-AT). The phosphatase cDNAs fused to the activation domain were: PP2Aca and PP2Acb: full length, PP4c: resi-dues 175–307, PP6c: residues 106–305 and PP2AcCT: residues 210–309. As negative controls, the activation domain-phosphatase cDNAfusions were assayed in combination with pBTM-NIP7, encoding a DNA-binding domain fusion with an unrelated protein. Plasmids pBTM-
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ANGINA PECTORIS docx

ANGINA PECTORIS DOCX

Atherosclerosis, plaque development, its instability, rupture and resulting atherothrombosis are inflammatory events. The first assumption could be that increased levels of inflammatory markers reflects inflammation of the vessel wall. This is possible, but some contradictory results concerning the level of CRP and atherosclerotic plaque size exist. This discrepancy could be explained by genetic polymorphism causing a different ability of macrophages to be activated as it was mentioned above, which explains a possible rupture even in a small atherosclerotic plaque (Kondo et al., 2003). Chronic systemic non-vascular infection is also pro-atherogenic and acute systemic inflammatory episodes are markedly associated with atherosclerotic processes (Rotenbacher et al., 2006). CRP could reflect inflammation in some other part of organism, although the correlation of Chlamydia pneumonie and Helicobacter pylori antibodies with the development of coronary heart disease is not very clear (Danesh et al., 2000). Generally, the above mentioned associations of CRP and IL-6 levels with BMI and IHD risk factors increase the possibility that inflammatory markers associated with the risk of atherothrombosis could reflect a certain metabolic state, which is also pro-atherogenic and is a predisposition to atherothrombotic events, that means it is also pro-inflammatory. In fact, CRP level predicts development of type 2 diabetes independently from traditional risk factors (Freeman et al., 2002). In insulin-resistant obese individuals, increased CRP levels decrease in parallel with the improvement of insulin resistance related to weight loss (Mc Laughlin et al., 2002). The fourth possibility is the fact that individuals differ in their sensitivity to various stimuli leading to acute phase proteins production. Therefore, those who are „higher CRP responders“, either due to genetic mechanism or other acquired mechanism (for example, BMI) are simple more sensible to atherosclerosis progression and complications. 4.7 CRP - a cause of cardiovascular disease CRP has been traditionally thought to be a bystander marker of vascular inflammation, without playing a direct role in CVD. Now, increasing evidence suggests that CRP may directly contribute to the proinflammatory state, and play thus a direct role in vascular injury. Angina Pectoris
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